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Expansion and Crisis. Section2. Main Idea. Economic and social problems brought down the Roman empire. People to Meet. Hannibal Scipio Tiberius Gracchus Gaius Gracchus Marius Sulla Julius Caesar Octavian Marc Antony. Places to Locate. Carthage Currently, Tunis. Expansion and Crisis.

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Expansion and Crisis

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    1. Expansion and Crisis Section2

    2. Main Idea • Economic and social problems brought down the Roman empire

    3. People to Meet • Hannibal • Scipio • Tiberius Gracchus • Gaius Gracchus • Marius Sulla • Julius Caesar • Octavian • Marc Antony

    4. Places to Locate • Carthage • Currently, Tunis

    5. Expansion and Crisis Roman Legions

    6. Introduction • Rome threatened by neighbors 500 B.C. to 300 B.C. • Conquered them • Forced them to ally with Rome • Until 264 B.C., Rome ruled entire peninsula

    7. Roman Legions • Rome’s success in war was due to its strong army and to its small mobile fighting units

    8. Roman Legions • All males had to serve • Changed from the Greek phalanx to small fighting units of 60 to 120 soldiers—more mobile • Could defeat the phalanx

    9. Roman Legions • Well trained • Deserters punished by death • Rome treated conquered foes well • Could keep own governments if they fought Rome’s wars

    10. Roman Legions • Gave the conquered partial rights—some even made citizens • Rome set up “coloniae”—permanent military settlements

    11. Rome Against Carthage • Carthage became Mediterranean’s wealthiest city • Conquered Spanish coast • Conquered most of Sicily • Romans decided to stop their expansion

    12. The First Punic War • In 264 B.C., Carthage threatened to seize the Strait of Messina • Rome sent a security force and war broke out

    13. The First Punic War • In 264 B.C. the Roman army conquered most of Carthage’s colonies in Sicily, but the Carthage’s naval superiority at first gave Carthage the advantage at sea

    14. The First Punic War • Undaunted, the Romans eventually built a larger fleet and forced Carthage to retreat

    15. The First Punic War • Rome used new tactic—large grappling hooks “hook” Carthage’s ships and the Romans boarded them to defeat them • War lasted from 264 B.C. to 241 B.C. • Carthage was forced to pay Rome an indemnity—payment for damages

    16. The Second Punic War • In 221 B.C. Hannibal, who had become general of the Carthaginian army in Spain, grabbed on of Rome’s allied cities in Spain

    17. The Second Punic War • Hannibal then took 40,000 troops and 40 elephants across the alps to fight the Romans • Half his force and half the elephants died on the journey

    18. The Second Punic War • Outnumbered, Hannibal still defeated the Romans • By 216 B.C., Hannibal had nearly destroyed the Roman army

    19. The Second Punic War • Rome raised a new army • Led by General Publius Scipio, they attacked Carthage, forcing Hannibal to return to Carthage

    20. The Second Punic War • Scipio defeats Hannibal’s army at Zama, just outside Carthage in 202 B.C. • Carthage gave up lands in Spain and warships and paid indemnity

    21. The Third Punic War • After 50 years, Carthage grew to greatness again • No threat to Rome • Senator Cato, for years, had ended all his speeches with, “Carthagodelendaest”--Carthage must be destroyed

    22. The Third Punic War • In 146 B.C. the Romans burned Carthage to the ground and sold its population into slavery • Legend is that the Romans placed salt on the earth to keep crops from growing

    23. The Third Punic War • Victory over Carthage gave Rome complete control of the Mediterranean

    24. The Punic Wars • The timeframe of the Punic Wars was from 264 B.C. to 146 B.C., a period of 118 years

    25. The Republic in Crisis • Rome now owned/controlled most of the Mediterranean area • Romans began referring to the Mediterranean as “our sea”

    26. The Republic in Crisis • Between 230 B.C. and 130 B.C., Rome brought most of the eastern Mediterranean area under its rule

    27. The Republic in Crisis • The Romans were powerful but they faced growing social unrest • Conquered peoples complained about corrupt officials stealing wealth for personal gain

    28. The Republic in Crisis • The Roman Empire was a vast territory • Rome’s government established to govern small city-state • Political problems led to social and economic upheaval

    29. Exploiting the Provinces • Rome organized non-Italian territories into provinces • Pay tribute to Rome • Recognize Rome’s authority

    30. Exploiting the Provinces • Senate appointed governors called proconsuls • Often accepted bribes and robbed provinces • Publicans—people who collected taxes—also took money

    31. Exploiting the Provinces • Taking money became an accepted way of life for the rich to get richer

    32. Exploiting the Provinces • The Provinces rebelled due to unfair treatment • Roman legions had to be stationed in the provinces to keep order

    33. Exploiting the Provinces • Most provinces adjusted • Jews in Palestine resisted • Romans sacked Jerusalem in A.D. 70

    34. Changing the Countryside • Roman government expanded into provinces and acquired property • Holdings were rented to wealthy Romans • Created large estates called “latifundia” • Slaves of conquered lands worked the farms

    35. Changing the Countryside • Slaves resulted in less labor costs for growing crops…less than farmers in Italy • Latifundia owners captured the grain market and brought wealth to provinces

    36. Changing the Countryside • Latifundia owners forced small farmers out of business • Proconsuls and publicans bought up small farms in Rome to create latifundia

    37. Changing the Countryside • Proconsuls and publicans devoted latifundia to sheep ranching and raising olives and fruit • Put even more farmers out of work

    38. Crowding the Cities • Slave labor replaced paid labor • Landless farmers streamed into the cities looking for employment

    39. Crowding the Cities • Jobs were not available for former farmers • They became the urban jobless and poor

    40. Crowding the Cities • The urban poor barely eked out a living • Supported any politician who promised them “bread and circuses”—cheap food and free amusements

    41. Crowding the Cities • Gap between rich and poor widened • Upper class lived in fear of revolts • Rome stationed soldiers in strategic locations to prevent civil strife

    42. Crowding the Cities • Spartacus led 70,000 slaves and plundered the countryside • Rome finally crushed Spartacus, but not without great cost Spartacus led 70,000 slaves and plundered the countryside • Rome finally crushed Spartacus, but not without great cost

    43. Crowding the Cities • Urban poor and new middle class increased • Equites (EH*kwuh*TEEZ) (or knights) • Just below patricians • Saw more values in wealth than character • Influenced Romans to seek similar values

    44. Link to the Past • Discuss • Are we creating a permanent underclass in America? Who are they? • Are American mainstream jobs being taken? Is the middle class threatened? • Do people vote for politicians who promise them free “bread and circuses’ • Divide into groups and report back

    45. Reformers and Generals • Many were concerned with helping the plebeians • Two brothers tried to enact laws that would help but met with violent ends

    46. Reformers and Generals • Feuding among Rome’s leading families weakened Rome • Tiberius Gracchus (tribune) proposed limiting the size of latifundia and was killed in street fighting • Gaius Gracchus, his brother, was killed 10 years later proposing the same reforms • Wealthiest Romans keep the system

    47. Crowding the Cities • General Gaius Marius (and other generals) • Tried to help poor • Army leaders came to power in Rome and privately paid unemployed poor to serve in the army

    48. Crowding the Cities • For the first time soldiers owed allegiance to commander, not the republic • General Lucius Sulla used army against Marius and civil war broke out

    49. Crowding the Cities • The usual farmers had been decimated by government actions to enlarge farms into latifundia

    50. Marius and Sulla • Raised armies and fought each other in the streets of Rome for ultimate power • Sulla finally won after 6 years of fighting • The practice of using the army to gain political power was copied by Julius Caesar • Violence overtook law