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PAX ROMANA. Major Carlos Rascon. SOURCES. Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp. 34-45, 72-86 Montrossm, War Through the Ages, pp. 70-88 Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 39-49 Bradford, Julius Caesar, pp.113-164

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pax romana
PAX ROMANA

Major Carlos Rascon

sources
SOURCES
  • Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp. 34-45, 72-86
  • Montrossm, War Through the Ages, pp. 70-88
  • Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 39-49
  • Bradford, Julius Caesar, pp.113-164
  • Blois, The Roman Army and Politics in the First Century B.C., pp. 6-21
learning objectives
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Know and identify the changes made in the Roman military organization after the Third Punic War and the causes of these changes
  • Know and describe the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey, with emphasis on the reasons for Caesar’s success militarily
  • Comprehend and explain the power struggle after the death of Caesar, with emphasis on the Battle of Actium
learning objectives4
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Know and recall the key changes in the Roman military system from Actium to Adrianople and the causes of these changes
  • Comprehend and explain the concept of Pax Romana
roman military changes after third punic war
ROMAN MILITARY CHANGES AFTER THIRD PUNIC WAR

Legions shift to composition of Roman

and non-Roman citizens

  • Scarce Recruits
  • Voluntary enlistment replaced compulsory
  • Military becomes less popular with the very rich
  • Video 8min (Roman legions)
roman military changes after third punic war7
ROMAN MILITARY CHANGES AFTER THIRD PUNIC WAR
  • Triarii, Principes and Hostati abolished in favor of “Light” and “Heavy” troops
  • Professional Army Emerges
  • Rome’s key factor- Discipline
roman military changes after third punic war8
ROMAN MILITARY CHANGES AFTER THIRD PUNIC WAR

Enlistments and Loyalty

  • Enlistments averaged 6 years (16 year max)
  • Soldiers swear allegiance to their general over the state of Rome
  • Proconsuls (governors of territories) gained virtually unlimited power
  • Head of Army less answerable to senate
slide9

ROMAN MILITARY CHANGES AFTER THIRD PUNIC WAR

Caius Marius

  • Allowed proletarians (men with out land) to join legion
  • Improved training making full-time soldiers
  • Made the cohort his major tactical unit (vice the maniple)
  • Interval between cohorts decreased, resembling a phalanx
  • Ten Cohorts still made a Legion
julius caesar
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Greatest Roman political general
    • Military Genius
    • Quick, sure judgment
    • Indomitable energy (Charisma)
    • Personal interest in his men
    • Willingness to under go every hardship his soldiers endured
julius caesar11
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Age 40, set out to learn “Art of War”
  • 61 - 60 B.C. - proconsul of Spain, suppressed barbarian uprisings
  • 60 B.C. - formed 1st Triumvirate W/Pompey and Crassus
  • 58 B.C. - Triumvirate appointed Caesar proconsul of Gaul
  • By 51 B.C. - expanded Roman power in Gaul, quelled all revolts
julius caesar12
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Caesar’s Legion
    • Preceded by a Vanguard of cavalry and heavy foot
    • Main body plus baggage in center
    • Rear guard disposed for immediate action
    • Light infantry flank guards
julius caesar13

VS

JULIUS CAESAR
  • The Civil War
    • Crassus was killed in battle - 53 B.C.
    • Pompey, jealous of Caesar, had Senate pass law taking away Caesar’s political & Military power in March of 49 B.C.
    • Caesar then “Crossed the Rubicon” in Dec of 50 or Jan of 49 B.C.
      • Act of War (By law needed senate consent to cross Rubicon (Italy north border) w/forces)
      • Caesar had previously only fought barbarians, now he would fight Roman legions
julius caesar14
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Popular sympathy was with Caesar
  • Pompey & Senate fled to Epitus (West coast of modern Greece)
  • Caesar was in Rome in less than two months, master of all Italy
  • It took Caesar 5 years to defeat Pompey and his supporters
julius caesar15
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Ilerda Campaign
    • Initially two unsuccessful frontal assaults on Ilerda
    • Followed by harassment, marches, countermarches, cutting off supplies
    • Forces enemy into weak defensive position, then refused battle
    • Pursued and harassed enemy continually cutting off supplies
    • Again refused battle
julius caesar16
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Ilerda Campaign
    • Made rapid countermarch to cut off enemy from retreat into Ebro defiles
    • Another rapid countermarch cuts off faltering enemy from obtaining water at Sigoris
    • Cuts off foes from their last resort of regaining the fortified camp at Ilerda
julius caesar17
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Ilerda Campaign
    • Gained unconditional surrender
    • Gained respect by sparing Romans from slaughter and for his expert generalship
    • Offered 70,000 prisoners liberty and safe escort to Rome if they immediately enlisted in his ranks
julius caesar18
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Dyrrhachium
    • 49 B.C. - Caesar had 12 legions @ Brundisium to seek out Pompey
    • Sailed for Greece
      • Ships were scarce, only 7 legions initially (violated principle of mass?)
      • Pompey controlled sea
      • Mid-winter - Pompey less vigilant (surprise?)
    • Avoided Hostile Fleet, landed @ Palaeste
    • Ships returned for Mark Anthony & 20,000 men of his army
julius caesar19
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Apsus River
    • Caesar & Pompey made contact
    • Pompey superior #’s, but inferior Quality
    • Neither wanted to take offensive
      • Caesar - waiting for Anthony
      • Pompey hoped his fleet would block Anthony, forcing Caesar to yield
    • Anthony landed north of Dyrrhachium
    • Pompey failed at preventing join-up
    • Pompey fell back to Dyrrhachium
julius caesar20
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Apsus River
    • Caesar sent three legions for supplies and decided to contain Pompey
    • Both generals built lines (embankments) facing each other
      • Caesar couldn’t totally blockade (Pompey controlled sea)
      • Pompey broke out along coast, then pursued Caesar for three days
    • Had Pompey pursued harder, history may have been different
julius caesar21
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Pharsalus
    • Caesar regrouped in Thessaly with about 30,000 infantry & 1,000 cavalry
    • Met Pompey with disadvantage in #’s (1:2 infantry, 1:3 or 4 cavalry) on plains of Pharsalus
    • Pompey’s plan:
      • Secure his right flank along Enipeus River
      • Use superior cavalry to flank Caesar on his right, sweep around and attack his rear
julius caesar23
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Pharsalus
    • Caesar grasped Pompey’s plan
      • Brought up cavalry to face Pompey’s cavalry
      • Took 3rd line from Infantry and formed 4th line behind Cavalry (decisive point)
    • Pompey left initiative
      • Caesar launched counter attack; Pompey met with Cavalry, Archers, Slingers; Caesar had 4th line attack; 4th line had such vigor Pompey’s cavalry retreated
julius caesar25
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Pharsalus
    • Infantry now fully engaged
    • Caesar flanked Pompey on his left with 4th line
    • Caesar ordered 3rd Line (reserves) into fight (timely use of reserves)
    • Pompey fled and his forces surrendered in the hills after being surrounded
julius caesar27
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Ruspina
    • Africa, Oct 47 B.C., Caesar surrounded by superior force near Ruspina
    • Formed single line of cohorts in favor of protecting flanks
    • Single line was pushed together with cavalry in gaps
    • Faced alternating cohorts to rear forming two back to back lines and pushed out
    • Imaginative action salvaged defeat
julius caesar28
JULIUS CAESAR
  • Further operations in Africa/Spain were successful
  • Caesar assassinated 15 March, 44 B.C.
battle of actium
BATTLE OF ACTIUM
  • Anthony and Cleopatra ruled from Egypt ~200 ships
  • Octavian Ruled from Rome had ~200 ships
  • Sea Battle conducted in Ionian Sea
  • Over 400 galleys and 80,000 men involved
battle of actium31
BATTLE OF ACTIUM
  • Deserters informed Octavian
  • Anthony’s Fleet sailed out
  • Agrippa formed up seaward and waited for the wind also
  • Separation of the Squadrons
  • Anthony and Cleopatra defeated and betrayed, Anthony fled
battle of actium32
BATTLE OF ACTIUM
  • Established Roman Navy as the premier navy of the time
  • Combined with army to secure frontiers and to police Mediterranean
  • Octavian reaches Alexandria in July, 30 B.C. ; Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide
  • Octavian takes the title of Caesar Augustus
pax romana33
PAX ROMANA
  • The period from Caesar Augustus (27 B.C.) to the battle of Adrianople (378 A.D.)
  • Longest period of

peace Roman empire

had experienced

  • The Empire
    • Internally Pacified
    • Secure Frontiers
pax romana34
PAX ROMANA
  • 13 B.C. Augustus reduced the army of the Roman Empire to 25 Legions (about 300,000 soldiers)
  • In 6 A.D. he established a permanent retirement fund
  • Encouraged retired soldiers to settle in the provinces near their former legion
  • 16 year tours (later 20 year enlistments)
pax romana35
PAX ROMANA
  • Defensively Orientated
  • Cavalry
  • War Engines
    • By 4th Century 10 Catapults and 60 Ballistae were assigned to each legion
    • This is one of the highest rations of “guns” to soldiers in history
decline of rome
DECLINE OF ROME
  • Riot accelerated by decline in farming
  • The small farms
    • Free peasants were forced to become coloni
    • Proved insufficient, barbarians invited to work
  • Exhaustion of the soil
  • Lack of Agriculture
    • More people drifted into the cities
    • Unemployment
decline of rome37
DECLINE OF ROME
  • Professional politicians
  • Reduced discipline and training
  • Increasing lack of confidence between commander and troops
  • Sending units from one portion of the frontier to reinforce units engaged elsewhere
the battle of adrianople
THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE
  • The Visigoths
    • Originally friendly to the empire
    • The local Roman officials allowed the Visigoths to retain their weapons in return for certain “favors”
    • For over a year the Roman officials abused the Goths
  • The Emperor Valens
  • Legion weakened by increasing number of light foot and cavalry
the battle of adrianople40
THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE
  • Valens came upon the Gothsen camp
  • He drew up his army
  • Believing that all the enemy were inside the Laager, he attacked
the battle of adrianople41
THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE
  • The Bulk of the Gothic Horsemen were foraging
  • As the battle raged, the Gothic horsemen charged down on the Roman left
  • The Roman cavalry disintegrated quickly
  • The Roman right fled, and the infantry was slaughtered
the battle of adrianople42

THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE

Valens and 40,000 infantry annihilated

Battle of Adrianople signified the end of the Roman military tradition

the battle of adrianople43
THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE
  • Collapse of Rome
  • A revolution in tactics
    • Cavalry was now the chief arm
    • Light Infantry would prepare and support the attack by their fire
    • Heavy infantry
      • Base for defense
      • Offense - ready reserve
summary and conclusion
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
  • Their were many changes to the Roman military after the Third Punic War
  • Caesar won the civil wars against Pompey
  • Pax Romana was the longest period of peace in Rome, during this period the army was oriented to defense
  • Rome divides