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Introduction to animals

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  1. Introduction to animals Introduction to Animals

  2. Traits

  3. Characteristics of Animals • All multicellular (metazoans) • Eukaryotes(cells with nucleus & organelles) • Ingestive heterotrophs (take in food and internally digest it) • Store food reserves in the liver as glycogen

  4. Lions Feeding (Ingestion)

  5. Support Systems • Have some type of skeletal support • Endoskeletoninside and made of cartilage &/or bone • Exoskeletons found in arthropods • Cover the outside of the body • Limit size • Must be molted making animal vulnerable to predators

  6. Cicada Molting Exoskeleton

  7. Support Systems • Worms and echinoderms (starfish) have fluid-filled internal cavities giving them support • Called hydrostatic skeletons

  8. Movement • Animals such as sponges may be sessile (attached & non-moving) • Animals that move very little are said to be sedentary (clam) • Animals that can move are motile • Have muscular tissue to provide energy for movement

  9. SESSILE SEDENTARY Chiton Sponge MOTILE Cheetah

  10. Reproduction in Animals • All animals are capable of sexual reproduction • Some animals like sponges and earthworms are hermaphroditesproducing both eggs and sperm • Hermaphrodites may exchange sperm and NOT fertilize their own eggs

  11. Leeches Exchange Sperm During Mating leech Mating

  12. Reproduction in Animals • Females of some animals produce eggs, but the eggs develop without being fertilized • Called Parthenogenesis • New offspring will be all female Parthenogenesis occurs in some fishes, several kinds of insects, and a few species of frogs and lizards

  13. Parthenogenesis in the Komodo Dragon

  14. Female Beetles Mating Young Courtship Male Mating and Mating Behaviors

  15. Levels of Organization • Sponges are the ONLY animals that have just the cellular level • All other animals show these levels – cell, tissue, organ, and system • Cells may specialize(take own different shapes and functions) • Cells are held together by cell junctions to form tissues

  16. Molecule or compound Atom Organelle Levels of Organization CELL Life begins Tissue Organ Organ system Organism

  17. Invertebrate groups

  18. Characteristics of Invertebrates • Simplest animals • Contain the greatest number of different species • Most are aquatic (found in water) • Do NOT have a backbone • Includes sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and echinoderms

  19. Sponge - Porifera Osculum of Sponge

  20. Sea Anemone - Cnidaria Tentacles of Sea Anemone

  21. More Cnidarians Brain Coral Red jellyfish

  22. Flatworms - Platyhelminthes Marine Flatworm Planarian

  23. Roundworms (Nematoda) and Segmented Worms (Annelida) Nematode Leech (segmented worm)

  24. Mollusca (With and Without Shells) snail scallop octopus nudibranch nautilus

  25. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, crustaceans, horseshoe crab) spider crayfish Horseshoe crab Dung beetle

  26. Echinoderms Sea fan (crinoid) starfish Brittle star Sand dollar Sea cucumber

  27. Vertebrate Groups

  28. Vertebrata • More complex animals • Most have a backbone made up of individual bones called vertebrae • From simplest to most complex, the phylum includes: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

  29. Vertebrate Backbone

  30. Vertebrata • Vertebrates have endoskeletons (internal) • Some vertebrates have skeletons of cartilage(sharks, rays, and skates) • Other vertebrates have skeletons of bone and cartilage(reptiles, birds, & mammals)

  31. Bone & Cartilage in Fetus

  32. Fish lancelet ray damselfish anglerfish

  33. Amphibia salamander toad frog newt

  34. Reptilia Turtle Snake Lizard Alligator

  35. Birds - Aves hummingbird ostrich lovebirds

  36. Mammalia

  37. Body Areas

  38. Surfaces • Dorsal – back or upper surface • Ventral – belly or lower surface • Anterior – head or front end • Posterior – tail or hind end opposite the head • Oral surface (echinoderms) – is where the mouth is located (underside) • Aboral surface (echinoderms) – is opposite the mouth (top side)

  39. Surfaces (Most Animals) DORSAL POSTERIOR ANTERIOR VENTRAL

  40. Surfaces (Echinoderms) ORAL ABORAL mouth

  41. Symmetry

  42. Body Symmetry

  43. Body Symmetry • Symmetry is the arrangement of body parts around a central plane or axis • Asymmetry occurs when the body can’t be divided into similar sections (sponges)

  44. Body Symmetry • Radial symmetry occurs when body parts are arranged around a central point like spokes on a wheel(echinoderms) • Most animals with radial symmetry are sessile(attached) or sedentary(move very little)

  45. Body Symmetry • Bilateral symmetry occurs when animals can be divided into equal halves along a single plane • Organisms will have right and left sides that are mirror images of each other • More complex type of symmetry

  46. Body Symmetry • Animals with bilateral symmetry are usually motile • Animals have an anterior and posterior ends • Show cephalization(concentration of sensory organs on the head or anterior end)

  47. Segmentation

  48. Segmentation • Occurs whenever animal bodies are divided into repeating units or segments • Found in more complex animals • Earthworms show external segmentation • Humans show internal segmentation (backbone) • Segments may fuse (cephalothorax)