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Introduction to Animals. Chapter 34. What makes an animal an animal?. Multicellular Heterotrophy Sexual reproduction & development Movement. Body Symmetry. Radial symmetry- a body plan in which the parts are organized in circle around an axis. Body Symmetry.

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what makes an animal an animal
What makes ananimal an animal?
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophy
  • Sexual reproduction & development
  • Movement
body symmetry
Body Symmetry
  • Radial symmetry- a body plan in which the parts are organized in circle around an axis.
body symmetry1
Body Symmetry
  • Bilateral symmetry- two similar halves on either side of a central plane
body symmetry2
Body Symmetry
  • Asymmetry- no organization
body cavity
Body Cavity
  • Body cavity- fluid filled space that forms between the digestive tract and the outer wall of the body.
  • Aids in movement and acts as a reservoir and medium of transport for nutrients and wastes.
animal kingdom
Animal Kingdom



with a Backbone 
or Spinal Column:
(All these animals are in the phyla Chordata and the subphyla Vertebrata.)

  • Animals 
without a Backbone
or Spinal Column
  • Vertebrates are a subphylum of chordates.
  • Chordates comes from notochord which is a firm, flexible rod of tissue located in the dorsal part of the body.
  • In vertebrates the notochord develops into a brain and spinal cord.
  • Most invertebrates have bilateral symmetry which is an adaptation to a more motile lifestyle.
    • It allows for cephalization.
  • Radial symmetry are not very motile and drift along, allows for more access to food sources.
cell to embryo
Cell to Embryo

Cleavage- the series of cell divisions that occurs immediately following fertilization 

Blastula- dividing cells become a hollow ball

Gastrulation- transforms the blastula into a multilaytered embryo called the gastrula

germ layers
Germ Layers
  • Ectoderm- outer layer of the gastrula
    • Forms the outer layer of skin, hair, nails and the nervous system
  • Mesoderm- middle layer
    • Forms the skeleton, muscles, inner layer of skin, circulatory system and the lining of the body cavity
  • Endoderm- inner layer
    • Forms the urinary and reproductive systems, and the digestive tract; pancreas, liver, lungs and gills