decolonization and nation building n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Decolonization and Nation Building PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Decolonization and Nation Building

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31

Decolonization and Nation Building - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Decolonization and Nation Building. HIST 132 4 /8/13. Indian Nationalism. After 1858, emphasis on reducing ethnic, religious, and social divisions - Pan-Indian nationalism Combined Western ideas with traditional practices

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Decolonization and Nation Building' - rory

Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
indian nationalism
Indian Nationalism
  • After 1858, emphasis on reducing ethnic, religious, and social divisions - Pan-Indian nationalism
  • Combined Western ideas with traditional practices
  • Many nationalists came from growing middle class, merchants and manufacturing.
barriers to indian nationalism
Barriers to Indian Nationalism
  • Deep economic divisions
    • Rural: peasants – landowners – moneylenders – maharajahs (princes)
    • Urban: urban poor – laborers – craftsmen – merchants
  • Language: 1,652 dialects spoken in India,

122 spoken by more than 10,000 people,

29 spoken by more than 1 million

    • English as language of upper class
  • Religion:
    • Hinduism: division into 100s of

occupational castes

    • Muslims: had ruled before British;

¼ of population

  • Gender
british rule and industrialization
British Rule and Industrialization
  • Colonial India governed by a

British viceroy

  • Indian Civil Service: primarily


  • Encouraged industrialization

which benefited British rule

(railroads, telegraphs, etc.)

  • Discouraged industrialization

which would benefit India (cotton

and steel industries, limited

training of Indians, etc.)

india at the turn of the 20 th century
India at the turn of the 20th century
  • Despite famine and droughts (killing 2 million people from 1896-1900 alone), India’s population exploded.
  • 1900 = 250 million; 1941 = 389 million
  • Population growth placed new economic pressures on India
  • Despite deforestation and irrigation, not enough

land available for peasants

  • Landless peasants moved

to the cities, but there

weren’t enough jobs

  • Conditions difficult for

both rural and urban lower


indian nationalism1
Indian Nationalism
  • Many Indians accepted British rule
  • Did not accept British racism
  • Macaulay’s Children and lack of access
  • Indian National Congress: Founded in 1885; increased access to government positions
  • Partition of Bengal
    • 1905: Lord Curzon divides Bengal into two


    • Angers nationalists who were not consulted
    • Angers Hindu Bengalis who were now

minorities in East Bengal

  • Demonstrations, boycotts of British goods,

and violence

divide and conquer
Divide and Conquer
  • All-India Muslim League: founded in 1906 to protect against Hindu domination
  • British grant limited rights to vote based on wealth
  • Muslims tended to be poorer than Hindus
    • Partially because many lower caste Hindus converted
  • British offer different voting qualifications for Hindus and Muslims
  • Shift capital from Calcutta

to Delhi, former capital of Mughal


wwi and indian nationalism
WWI and Indian Nationalism
  • During WWI, 1.2 million Indians volunteered for the army
  • Millions more contributed money to support British cause
  • Feeling that British would grant political concessions for loyalty
  • 1917: Announcement

of the development of

self-governing institutions,

but vague

the amritsar massacre 1919
The Amritsar Massacre, 1919
  • April 13, 1919: General Reginald Dyer orders British troops to fire on peaceful protestors in the city of Amritsar
  • At least 370 killed, 1,200 wounded
  • Protests sweep across India
  • British House of Lords vote to approve of Dyer’s actions
  • A fund established to raise

money in appreciation of Dyer’s


mahatma gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
  • Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)
  • “Mahatma” = “great soul”
  • English educated
  • Lawyer for Indian community in South Africa
  • 1915: Joined Indian National Congress
  • Preached ahimsa (non-violence)

and satyagraha (truth-force)

  • Famous for organizing non-violent,

non-cooperation protests against

British rule

  • 1921: Gandhi gives up both Western style dress and upper class Indian style
  • Wears a length of homespun cloth and a shawl
  • Pushes independence movement as a

mass movement by speaking to the

harijan (Children of God) or the poor

and outcaste

  • Protests include encouraging

homespun cloth and gathering salt

from the sea.

  • How are these effective protests?
gandhi indian home rule
Gandhi “Indian Home Rule”
  • Some questions to consider when reading:
  • How does Gandhi see India receiving its independence?
  • How does he see India responding after independence?
  • What would Gandhi like to see

the British do?

move to home rule
Move to Home Rule
  • 1920s: British begin offering India control over “national” areas; education, economy, and public works.
  • Increase enrollment of Indians in the Civil Service
  • India able to impose tariffs against imports,

including British imports, giving Indian

industry a needed boost.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964): Gandhi’s

designated successor as leader of Indian

National Congress

    • Appealed to middle and upper class Indians
    • Wanted to push India as a modern industrial


  • Britain did not consult a single Indian when committing India to World War II
  • Provincial governments dominated by Indian National Congress quit en masse.
  • Push for full independence; “Quit India”
  • After the war, British Labour Party prepared for independence.
  • In the British Government

Statement: Policy in

India, 1946, what is the

British government most

concerned about?

nehru speech on the granting of indian independence 1947
Nehru, Speech on the Granting of Indian Independence, 1947
  • What does Nehru say about the future of India?
  • How does he relate India to the rest of the world?
  • 1937: Indian National Congress won provincial elections but refused to share power with the Muslim League
  • 1940: Muhammad Ali Jinnah (leader of Muslim League) demands an independent Pakistan
  • As independence approached, violence and rioting broke out between Hindus and Muslims
  • Gandhi’s appeals for tolerance

went unheard

  • British calls for unification were


  • 1947: Indian National Congress accepts partition of Indian into secular, Hindu dominated India and Muslim Pakistan
  • Midnight August 15, 1947: India and Pakistan gain independence
  • Nehru and Jinnah become first leaders.
  • Violent outbreaks as Muslims moved north and Hindus

moved south

  • 12 million people relocated
  • Trainloads of refugees

attacked and killed

  • Train to Pakistan:

Khushwant Singh

  • After partition, only one Muslim majority province remains a part of India, Kashmir
  • Most inhabitants of Kashmir would

have voted to join Pakistan,

but they were not allowed to.

  • Continues to be a source

of conflict between India

and Pakistan today…

africa french north africa
Africa: French North Africa
  • 1952-1956: France grants independence to Morocco and Tunisia
  • Algeria is a different story…
    • 150 years of French rule
    • French settlement (10% of


    • Political rights to settlers
    • Fiction of integration with French


    • Like India, little real benefit…
  • Vietnamese success provokes

Algerian response.

battle for algiers
Battle for Algiers
  • Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN): supported by Egypt and other Arab countries, interested in liberation of all Arab nations
  • French colonists see Algeria as theirs and fight brutally until very end.
  • Battle for Algiers (1966)
  • 1962: Algerian


  • Colonists return to France
  • Despite long war for

independence, strong ties

remain between Algeria and


sub saharan africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Independence through negotiation.
  • Like in India, leaders of independence movements often Western educated
  • Colonial organizations (schools, bureaucracies, labor

associations) and imposed

languages brought unity to

independence movements.

  • Population growth added

a youth movement to

independence movement.

kwame nkrumah and ghana
Kwame Nkrumah and Ghana
  • Studied in U.S. (philosophy and theology) and connects with black pride and independence ideologies of W.E.B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey
  • West African Secretariat:

Pan-Africanist movement

for decolonization

  • 1947: Returns to Gold Coast
  • 1951: Becomes Prime Minister
  • 1957: Full Independence
kenya and the mau mau
Kenya and the Mau Mau
  • White settler population resists independence
  • Protests amongst Kikuyu people
  • Settlers call the movement “Mau Mau” to make it sound primitive and savage
  • 1952: Violence escalates

between settlers and

anti-colonial groups

  • British troops hunted down

Kikuyu leaders and resettled


jomo kenyatta 1894 1978
Jomo Kenyatta (1894-1978)
  • PhD in Anthropology (London)
  • 1952: British impose a state of

emergency in Kenya (British East

Africa) and arrest Kenyatta and other

nationalist leaders.

  • 1961: Kenyatta negotiates with the

British, agrees to write a constitution

for independent Kenya

  • 1964: Kenyatta becomes first

president of Kenya

benefits of french rule
Benefits of French Rule…
  • Realization of future discrepancies between different regions (resource rich Ivory Coast vs. desert Niger)
  • Importance of French investment (a billion dollars between 1947-1956)
  • Dependence of elites on civil service employment.
  • Push to gain more self-governance under France
  • “One cannot conceive of both an independent territory

and a France which continues

to aid it.” de Gaulle, 1958

  • Does not stop the drive to


belgian congo and the cold war
Belgian Congo and the Cold War
  • Contending political and ethnic groups backed by external allies.
  • Western business groups tied to mining operations.
  • Civil War with foreign mercenaries and Cold War

rhetoric leads to heavy loss of life.

  • 1965: Mobuto SeseSeko seizes

power in a military coup.

  • Results in corrupt regime,

stays in office until 1997.

results of decolonization
Results of Decolonization
  • Underdevelopment and poverty
  • Most trained professionals return to Europe
  • New nations push economic agendas in UN
  • Anti-Imperialist appeal of Soviet Union
  • New map reflects colonial experience, not ethnic, linguistic, religious, etc. divisions
  • Conflicts over political future of newly independent nations
  • Conflicts can take ethnic/sectarian turn…