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NATION BUILDING AND NATIONIONALISM

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  1. NATION BUILDING AND NATIONIONALISM America: Past and Present Chapter 9

  2. Expansion and Migration • American perspective shifts from Europe to West after 1815 • Land perceived as rich, unsettled • Continent held in part by the English, Spanish, and Indians

  3. Extending the Boundaries • John Quincy Adams--expansionist secretary of state from 1816 to 1824 • Florida 1st focus of post war expansionists • Rush-Bagot, Convention of 1818 • Andrew Jackson and 1st Seminole War • Adams-Onis Treaty secures all Florida, U.S. boundary to Pacific • Settled "West" still mostly east of Mississippi River • John Jacob Astor, fur trade and backwoodsman American Fur Company

  4. Settlement to the Mississippi: Indian Removal • Indian Removal policy begins after 1815 • Some Indians retain tribal homelands • (Cherokee largest of Five Civilized Tribes) • Some Southern states claim jurisdiction over the Indians in their borders • Former Indian land sold to speculators • Trail of Tears • Black Hawk War of 1832 Last resistance in old Northwest

  5. Settlement to the Mississippi: Settlers Move In • By 1840 over 1/3 of U.S. population lives west of the Appalachians • Speculators sell land parcels to settlers on credit • Settlers immediately enter commercial farming to pay off debt • Access to markets gained by network of market towns, regional centers

  6. The People and Culture of the Frontier • West settled to escape overpopulation, rising land prices, worn-out soil • Settlers bring culture with them • Cooperation, strong community necessary for survival • Land values rise rapidly in a few years • Price rise encourages rootlessness as many sell out and move on

  7. A Revolution in Transportation • Primitive land transportation in the East was offset by shipping via the coastal waterways • After the War of 1812 political leaders recognized the need the need to improve the country’s transportation network • President Madison referred to as “internal improvements”

  8. Roads • National Road from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia • 1st great federal transportation project • Private turnpikes built by entrepreneurs • Roads useful but unprofitable

  9. Steamboats • Network of rivers encourage economic developmen • Flatboats transport down river early • Steamboats transport upriver after 1811 • Upriver capabilities reduce costs • Steamboat traffic stimulates Congress to establish safety regulations • Robert Fulton

  10. The Canal Boom • Erie Canal first transportation link between East and West, 1825 (Albany to Buffalo) • Most spectacular engineering achievement of young nation • Canal cuts East-West transportation costs dramatically • Canal stimulates commercial growth of New York City • Great canal building boom of 1820’s and 30’s ends because prove not to be profitable

  11. Emergence of a Market Economy • Great national transportation system created by nation’s river network • Canals cut shipping expenses for western farmers and eastern manufacturers • Steamboats on the rivers also reduced shipping costs and stimulated commercial agriculture • Economic revolution between 1810 and 1840 one of distribution rather than production

  12. The Beginning of Commercial Agriculture • Lower transportation costs mean greater income for the farmer • Sale to distant markets involves farmers in a complex system of credit • Market stimulates specialization • Ohio Valley produces wheat • Lower South produces cotton (slavery, land, cotton gin, demand due to textile industry)

  13. Commerce and Banking • Commercial farming stimulates new system of marketing • Extension of credit crucial to development of agricultural marketing system • Farmers borrow on future crops • Farm subsidies due to demand for credit • Use of credit stimulates banking • State banks increase after 1812 • 1816--Second Bank of the United States created to check state banks • Bank’s easy credit sparks Panic of 1819 1819 political cartoon • State banking systems and easy credit lead to frequent currency depreciations

  14. Early Industrialism • Rise in manufacturing after 1812 • Traditional methods but innovative financing through “putting out” system • “putting-out”--merchants deliver raw materials for farm families, artisans to process • Textile industry leads development of factory system, removal of production from home to factory • Young single women primary labor source in textile mills • Lowell, Massachusetts great showplace

  15. The Politics of Nation Building After the War of 1812 • Politics a one-party system after 1812 • Interest groups no longer take differences into the political arena • Federal executive, legislature largely irrelevant to domestic economy • Supreme Court exerts influence on economy by deciding crucial cases

  16. The Republicans in Power • Republicans begin adopting Federalist measures after War of 1812 • 1815: establish high tariffs • 1816: charter a national bank • federal aid for internal improvements • Federal efforts to stimulate economy falter • Madison, Monroe see Constitutional conflicts • Efforts provoke sectional conflict • Henry Clay leading advocate for American System American System

  17. Monroe as President • James Monroe elected President in 1816, reelected in 1820 • Monroe seeks national harmony • Takes no action in Panic of 1819, believes president above such matters • Provides no leadership controversy over Missouri

  18. The Missouri Compromise: The Issues • 1817--Missouri applies for statehood as slave state • Northerners believe South over-represented in House of Representatives • House rejects unless slavery abolished • South wishes to preserve balance between slave states and free states

  19. The Missouri Compromise: The Solution • Missouri admitted as slave state • Maine admitted as free state • Slavery banned elsewhere in Louisiana Purchase above the latitude of 36E30' • Missouri controversy exposed deep rift between North and South

  20. The Missouri Compromise, 1820-1821

  21. Postwar Nationalism and the Supreme Court • John Marshall chief justice 1801-1835 • Marshall uses position to encourage national growth • Believes Constitution exists to protect the industrious • Protects individual property rights against government interference • Marshall uses court decisions to limit powers of the states • McCulloch v. Maryland – state can’t tax national bank • Gibbons v. Ogden – federal regulation of interstate commerce

  22. Nationalism in Foreign Policy:The Monroe Doctrine • Main diplomatic challenge – dealing with Latin American colonial revolts • When Latin American nations revolt, U.S. supports new republics • European ruling classes fear rebellion might prove contagious • France was encouraged to squelch Spain's rebellious colonies • Great Britain asks U.S. to cooperate against French in Latin America

  23. Nationalism in Foreign Policy: Monroe Doctrine (2) • Monroe persuaded that U.S. alone must protect Latin American independence • 1823--Monroe Doctrine warns European nations out of the Western Hemisphere • Doctrine also promises U.S. will not interfere in European affairs • Refocuses U.S. from worldwide struggles against tyranny to national development

  24. The Troubled Presidency of John Quincey Adams • James Monroe supports John Quincy Adams to succeed him • Adams intelligent, keen interest in progress, loyal to nation, not sectional • Nearly loses election of 1824 • A "gentleman" in an age of rising democracy • Term of office fails because of fiercely contending sectional interests

  25. The End of the “Era of Good Feelings” • There were sharp divisions over how to achieve national greatness • Elite nonpartisan statesmanship would soon give way to a more contentious democratic process