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The Emergence of the Nation-State in Europe

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  1. The Emergence of theNation-Statein Europe

  2. Trends of the Late Middle Ages • Church in crisisDivision & Reform • “The Commercial Revolution: Rise of trade and capitalism • Changing class system in transition (Money and Rise of the Middle Class) • Philosophical  From Scholasticism vs. to Humanism

  3. Trends of the Late Middle Ages • Old: accept authority; New: challenge • Changes in warfare  Expense of new weapons and larger armies  increasing power of monarchs and national system • Rise of Nationalism and National Monarchies: • The Nation-State

  4. Problem: The old system of government is not functioning well.What is the solution? • Either the old system will be improved and adapted to meet the new challenges >>OR<< • A new system will rise to replace the old and respond in different ways with new solutions to the problems

  5. It’s all about the Power! Everybody Wants Power • The 3 main groups vying for power during the Later Middle Ages and the Renaissance are: • Monarchy • Nobility (Aristocracy) • Church

  6. Influence is the key! • The more people that do as you say, the more power you have! • The Monarchs, Nobles, and Church are all trying to be the main influence in peoples’ lives • “The people” will support whomever they believe will best meet their needs: • Protection • Increased rights

  7. Have a plan! • The People will follow those leaders with a plan • Whoever can prove to the people they are capable of leading will win influence over them • Whoever can guarantee “the people” the basic security to lead their lives will benefit

  8. Barriers to the Nation-State • Political • Strong Nobility and Feudal System • Weak-willed King • Geographic • Large in size • Divided by topography • Lack of natural borders for defense

  9. Barriers to the Nation-State • Social • People are used to the old ways: Feudal lords and the Church • Need for strong economic base • Need for cultural unity • Religious • Strong Church opposed government centralization • Large land ownership by Church

  10. Characteristics of the New Monarchies • Centralized government power • Bureaucracy for national administration • Uniform law, order, and justice • Strong military (expensive!) • Gunpowder and other new weapons • National Army: Commoners with Professional Officer class; Equipped by state; Conscription • Navy

  11. Characteristics of the New Monarchies • Promoted and controlled trade • More efficient taxation • Allied with middle class against old aristocracy • National church • Catholic: State superior in control • Protestant: State church or separate

  12. Niccolo Machiavelli1469-1527

  13. “Experience has shown that the princes that have accomplished great deeds are those who have cared little for keeping their promises and have known how to manipulate the minds of men with shrewdness. It is necessary for a prince to know how to do wrong. In the actions of all men, and especially of princes, one must think of the ends.”***Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince

  14. “One becomes a prince through either the support of the common people or the rich, for in every state, these two opposing parties exist. The prudent man who becomes prince with the aid of the common people keeps their friendship which is easy, since they ask nothing except not to be oppressed.”***Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince

  15. “Is it better to be loved than feared or feared than loved? One should wish to be both, but it is much safer to be feared than loved. Men on the whole are ungrateful, fickle, false, cowardly, covetous. They will offer you their blood, property, life, and children when the need is distant, but when it approaches they turn against you. . . .

  16. . . . and a prince who, relies entirely on their promises and neglects other precautions, is ruined. Men have fewer scruples in offending one who is beloved than one who is feared, for love is preserved by the link of obligation which is broken at every opportunity for their advantage, but fear preserves you by a dread of punishment which never fails.” – Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince

  17. "The chief foundations of all states, new as well as old or composite, are good laws and good arms; and as there cannot be good laws where the state is not well armed, it follows that where they are well armed they have good laws.”-Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince

  18. Status ofthe majorNational Areas, ca. 1450-1500:

  19. c. 2000

  20. c. 1500

  21. France, England, and Spain formed strong, national monarchies

  22. France Victory in the Hundred Years’ War created a strong, centralized monarchy under Charles VII Louis XI brought peace and controlled nobility

  23. England Tudor dynasty, beginning with Henry VII, united people after Wars of the Roses Parliament was included in the Tudor system

  24. Spain Unified by marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile Reconquista completed Beginning world exploration and conquest

  25. Germany and Italy remained fragmented until ca. 1870

  26. The Italian States Warfare, competition among the city-states, and a strong Church leaves Italy divided into city-states

  27. The German States Power struggle between feudal princes and the Emperor and religious division kept the states divided

  28. Portugal Unified territory and monarchy Taking the lead in world exploration

  29. Divided into 17 feudal provinces under foreign rule • Divided into modern Netherlands (1648) and Belgium (1830) The Netherlands

  30. Russia Unifying under the Dukes of Moscow Isolated from Europe by geography, religion, neighboring countries

  31. The Ottoman Empire Strong and threatening Europe through the Balkans

  32. Scandinavia:Sweden and Denmark • Baltic trade of the Hansa losing value; trade shifting away • Climate change lowered agricultural output

  33. Poland • Strong after union with Lithuania • Weakening due to Nobility holding onto power • Purposely elected weak kings and blocked laws through Liberum veto

  34. THE END