Emergence of Nation States. Late Medieval Period. What is a nation-state?. Large group of people sharing common language, territory, and government. Rise of nation-states in Europe marked end of feudalism. 1st nation-states: England, France, Spain, and Russia. William the Conqueror.
Emergence of Nation States Late Medieval Period
What is a nation-state? • Large group of people sharing common language, territory, and government. • Rise of nation-states in Europe marked end of feudalism. • 1st nation-states: England, France, Spain, and Russia
William the Conqueror • 1066 AD – King Edward dies without heir for England • Brother-in-law Harold and Cousin William (Duke of Normandy) fight for throne • Meet at Battle of Hastings – William wins. • Known as Norman Conquest • Became King of England on Christmas Day, 1066. • Successfully unites most of England
Henry II • Inherits English throne in 1154 • Reforms Justice system • Changed law to reflect accepted customs • Began Common Law – legal system based on custom and court decisions • Common Law, unlike Feudal Law, applied to all of England. • Developed 1st jury system
John • Son of Henry II • Weak and abusive ruler • Forced extreme taxes and misused power • 1215 – Nobles banded together and forced John to sign the Magna Carta • Magna Carta = Great Charter
Magna Carta • Document severely limited King’s powers • Included clause protecting all men from being arrested/imprisoned EXCEPT “by legal judgment of peers or law of land” • We know this as Due Process of Law • When 1st written, Magna Carta only helped Nobles; later applied to all people
Hugh Capet • Feudal nobles of FRANCE elect him to be new king in 987 AD. • Made French throne hereditary • Expanded French kingdom
Hundred Years’ War • 1337-1453 • England and France fight over land • England wins many early battles. • Helps to define both England and France as separate nations
Joan of Arc • French teenager who asked Charles the Dauphin to lead army against England • Charles was heir to throne • Joan said God told her to save France • She lead them to victory in Battle of Orleans • Later taken captive by English, tried for witchcraft, and burned at the stake in 1431.
The Muslims in Spain • Christians fight Muslims to regain control of Spain. • This campaign to drive out Muslims in Spain is known as the Reconquista • Lasts for 700 years! • Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon marry and unite territories • Final drive against Muslims works in 1492.
Ferdinand and Isabella • Successfully united most of Spain. • Supported exploration (Christopher Columbus). • Completed the Reconquista in 1492.
King Philip II of Spain • 1556-1598 AD • Used gold and silver from Spanish conquests in Peru and Mexico to make Spain wealthy. • Also conquers Netherlands, Sicily, Portugal, Italy, and Philippines, etc. • MAJOR CONTRIBUTION IS EXPANDING SPANISH EMPIRE!
The Mongols • 1200s Mongols took over Russia • Kept power for 240 years • Over time, Russians united under Ivan II to overthrow the Mongols. • Ivan III (Ivan the Great) became czar (tsar) of Russia.
Defeat the Mongols. United much of Russia together. Earned the nickname “moneybags”. Called Russia the “Third Rome” and took the title of “caesar” or czar. Ivan The Great
In Conclusion • Eastern Orthodox Church made headquarters in Moscow, Russia • City became political center as well as spiritual center http://bestanimations.com/Cartoons/WarnerBros/WarnerBros.html