Objectives • Immigration Policies of Host Countries • Cultural Challenges Faced While Living in Other Countries
Immigration Policies of Host Countries. • Two ways of control: 1) quota system (max number of people allowed from a country) • 3/5 of immigrants must have family in US. • 5 yr wait for spouse • ¼ highly skilled (brain drain effect) • ¼ lottery • No quota for refugees
Yellow Peril • Historically, US quota racially motivated. (Yellow Peril: Chinese Exclusion Act 1882) • Chinese pulled by California Gold Rush to work in service industry and a form of raising money from more taxes. • Less gold + bad economy = scapegoat • 1882 – 1965: Chinese Exclusion Laws (stop immigration + no naturalization + could not marry White people until 1948)
Anti Asian Immigration Act 1924 • The Act controlled "undesirable" immigration by establishing quotas. The Act barred specific origins from the Asia–Pacific Triangle, which included Japan, China, the Philippines (then under U.S. control), Siam (Thailand), French Indochina (Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia), Singapore (then a British colony), Korea, Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), Burma, India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Malaya (mainland part of Malaysia). Based on the Naturalization Act of 1790, these immigrants, being non-white, were not eligible for naturalization, and the Act forbade further immigration of any persons ineligible to be naturalized. The Act set no limits on immigration from the Latin American countries • More Japanese and Chinese left the US than arrived in 1924.. • Until 1965: Western Europe made up 86% of all the immigrants to the US
Temporary Migration for Work • Guest Worker permitted in Europe & Middle East. (temporary but protected) • Significant % of it’s work force in Europe • Most guest workers come from Africa, Middle East, and Eastern Europe. (males)
Distinguishing Between Economic Migrants & Refugees • Refugees: special priority but difficult to establish • Cubans1960 - 1980: Political Refugees (725,000) How many today? • Haitians: Economic or Political or Race • Vietnam: Political bc of war (1975)… then 1980’s became economic
US Attitudes Toward Immigration • Utility of Immigrants: how long is the shelf life of the immigrant? • WOP: Anti Italian and other Southern and Eastern Europeans • Today’s Anti-Immigration: Does it scapegoat a people or is there real claim?
2010: Arizona SB 1070 • Arizona, Utah, Georgia, Indiana, Alabama, and South Carolina have enacted immigration enforcement laws that target undocumented immigrants and increase the authority of local police to enact immigration enforcement policies. • During a lawful stop, directs law enforcement officers to determine immigration status of individuals who they reasonably suspect to be illegal aliens, and for all persons who are arrested. • Prohibits illegal aliens without work authorization from applying for work, soliciting work • in a public place, or performing work in the state.
2011: Alabama HB 56 • The law prohibits illegal immigrants from receiving any public benefits at either the state or local level. It bars illegal immigrants from attending publicly-owned colleges or universities [currently blocked]. At the high, middle, and elementary public school levels, the law requires that school officials ascertain whether students are illegal immigrants. • The law prohibits the transporting or harboring of illegal immigrants [currently blocked]. It prohibits landlords from renting property to illegal immigrants. It forbids employers from knowingly hiring illegal immigrants for any job within Alabama.
Result of Anti-Immigration Laws • Latina women and children have been particularly negatively impacted by these laws, making it even more difficult for them to report domestic abuse, child abuse and seek refuge in the court system when being victimized. • On December 18, 2011, it was reported that Alabama's unemployment rate had fallen from 9.2 percent to 8.7 percent. Supporters credited the immigration law for the decrease
Attitudes Toward Guest Workers • Marginalized in society • In Western Europe the attitude is generally negative.