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Chapter 26 : The Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat

Chapter 26 : The Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat. Prevention of Injuries to the Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat. Head and face injuries are prevalent in sport, particularly in collision and contact sports

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Chapter 26 : The Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat

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  1. Chapter 26 : The Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat

  2. Prevention of Injuries to the Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat • Head and face injuries are prevalent in sport, particularly in collision and contact sports • Education and protective equipment are critical in preventing injuries to the head and face • Head trauma results in more fatalities than other sports injury • Morbidity and mortality associated w/ brain injury have been labeled the silent epidemic

  3. Figure 26-1

  4. Figure 26-3

  5. Assessment of Head Injuries • Brain injuries occur as a result of a direct blow, or sudden snapping of the head forward, backward, or rotating to the side • May or may not result in loss of consciousness, disorientation or amnesia; motor coordination or balance deficits and cognitive deficits • May present as life-threatening injury or cervical injury (if unconscious)

  6. History • Determine loss of consciousness and amnesia • Additional questions (response will depend on level of consciousness) • Do you know where you are and what happened? • Can you remember who we played last week? (retrograde amnesia) • Can you remember walking off the field (antegrade amnesia) • Does your head hurt? • Do you have pain in your neck? • Do you have tinnitus (ringing in ears)? • Can you move your hands and feet?

  7. Observation • Is the patient disoriented and unable to tell where he/she is, what time it is, what date it is and who the opponent is? • Is there a blank or vacant stare? Can the patient keep their eyes open? • Is there slurred speech or incoherent speech? • Are there delayed verbal and motor responses? • Gross disturbances to coordination?

  8. Inability to focus attention and is the patient easily distracted? • Memory deficit? • Does the patient have normal cognitive function? • Normal emotional response? • How long was the patient’s affect abnormal? • Is there any swelling or bleeding from the scalp? • Is there cerebrospinal fluid in the ear canal?

  9. Palpation • Neck and skull for point tenderness and deformity • Special Tests • Neurologic exam • Assess cerebral testing, cranial nerve testing, cerebellar testing, sensory and reflex testing • Eye function • Pupils equal and reactive to light (PEARL) • Dilated or irregular pupils • Ability of pupils to accommodate to light variance • Eye tracking - smooth or unstable (nystagmus, which may indicate cerebral involvement) • Blurred vision

  10. Balance Tests • Romberg Test • Assess static balance - determine individual’s ability to stand and remain motionless • Multiple variations (primarily foot position) • Balance Error Scoring System • Quantifiable clinical battery of test that utilizes different stances on both firm and foam surface • Errors are tabulated when the patient opens their eyes, takes hands off hips, steps/stumbles or falls • Coordination tests • Finger to nose, heel-to-toe walking • Inability to perform tests may indicate injury to the cerebellum

  11. Romberg Figure 26-4

  12. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) Figure 26-5

  13. Cognitive Tests • Used to establish impact of head trauma on cognitive function and to obtain objective measures to assess patient status and improvement • On or off-field assessment • Serial 7’s, months in reverse order, counting backwards • Tests of recent memory (score of contest, breakfast game, 3 word recall) • Neuropsychological Assessments • Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) is a brief mental status test • Used to assess orientation, immediate memory recall, concentration, and delayed recall on and off the field

  14. Neuropsychological Assessment (continued) • Other assessment tools have been designed to assess short term memory, working memory, attention, concentration, visual space capacity, verbal learning, information processing speed and reaction time • Computerized neuropsychological testing programs have been developed • Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) • CogState • Concussion Resolution Index (CRI) • Immediate Post Concussion Assessment & Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)

  15. Recognition and Management of Specific Head Injuries

  16. Skull Fracture • Etiology • Most common cause is blunt trauma • Signs and Symptoms • Severe headache and nausea • Palpation may reveal defect in skull • May be blood in the middle ear, ear canal, nose, ecchymosis around the eyes (raccoon eyes) or behind the ear (Battle’s sign) • Cerebrospinal fluid may also appear in ear and nose • Management • Immediate hospitalization and referral to neurosurgeon

  17. Cerebral Concussions (Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries) • Etiology • Major public health concern, with return to play decisions remaining the most challenging task for any sports medicine clinician • Result of direct blow, acceleration/deceleration forces producing shaking of the brain • Signs and Symptoms • Changes in level of consciousness • Posttraumatic amnesia • Glasgow Coma scale • Concentration deficits and attention span difficulties • Balance & coordination problems • Must monitor duration of signs and symptoms

  18. Signs and Symptoms • Two primary symptoms – loss of consciousness and post-traumatic amnesia • Variety of scales and return to play criteria have been examined • Typically involve LOC or amnesia • Recent classification systems have included concentration deficits, attention span difficulties, and balance and coordination in addition to LOC and amnesia • Placing more emphasis on all signs and symptoms may be a more logical approach • Using signs and symptoms immediate post-injury and 15 minutes post-injury to provide an estimation of injury severity has also been suggested • Third approach involves recovery of symptoms, neuropsychological testing, postural stability testing • Focus on patient symptomatology

  19. Management • The decision to return any patient to competition following a brain injury is a difficult one that takes a great deal of consideration • If any loss of consciousness occurs the athletic trainer must remove the patient from competition • With any loss of consciousness (LOC) a cervical spine injury should be assumed • Objective measures (BESS and SAC) should be used to determine readiness to play • A number of guidelines have been established to in an effort to aid clinicians in their decisions • Return to normal baseline requires approximately 3-5 days

  20. Management (continued) • All post-concussive symptoms should be resolved prior to returning to play -- any return to play should be gradual • Recurrent concussions can produce cumulative traumatic injury to the brain • Following an initial concussion the chances of a second episode are 3-6 times greater • Must be able to determine the need for physician referral and be able to decide when the patient should return home vs. being admitted to hospital • A system should be in place that allows for supervision and monitoring of patient when at home following concussive episode

  21. Management (continued) • In the past rest was deemed the best treatment • Efficacy of dual task rehabilitation strategies is being explored • Involves posture stability and cognitive tasks • Little evidence available • Involves divided attention tasks • Balance training • Neurocognitive tasks • Simultaneously performed • More research is necessary to establish efficacy of treatment method • Which patients are best candidates? • How soon should the technique be introduced?

  22. Post-Concussion Syndrome • Etiology • Condition which occurs following a concussion • May be associated w/ those MHI’s that don’t involve a LOC or in cases of severe concussions • Signs and Symptoms • Patient complains of a range of post-concussion problems • Persistent headaches, impaired memory, lack of concentration, anxiety and irritability, giddiness, fatigue, depression, visual disturbances • May begin immediately following injury and may last for weeks to months • Management • Athletic trainer should treat symptoms to greatest extent possible • Return patient to play when all signs and symptoms have fully resolved

  23. Second Impact Syndrome • Etiology • Result of rapid swelling and herniation of brain after a second head injury before symptoms of the initial injury have resolved • Second impact may be relatively minimal and not involve contact w/ the cranium • Impact disrupts the brain’s blood auto-regulatory system leading to swelling, increasing intracranial pressure • Signs and Symptoms • Often patient does not have LOC and may looked stunned • W/in 15 seconds to several minutes of injury patient’s condition degrades rapidly • Dilated pupils, loss of eye movement, LOC leading to coma, and respiratory failure

  24. Second Impact Syndrome (continued) • Management • Life-threatening injury that must be addressed w/in 5 minutes w/ life saving measures performed at an emergency facility • Best management is prevention from the athletic trainer’s perspective

  25. Cerebral Contusion • Etiology • Focal injury to the brain that involves small hemorrhages or intracranial bleeding w/in the cortex, stem or cerebellum • Generally occurs when head strikes a stationary object • Signs and Symptoms • Severity will vary greatly based on the extent of the injury • Will likely experience a LOC followed by a very talkative state • Normal neurological exam; presenting w/ headache, dizziness and nausea • Management • Hospitalization w/ CT and MRI • Treatment will vary according to status of the patient • Return to play occurs when patient is asymptomatic and CT is normal

  26. Malignant Brain Edema Syndrome • Etiology • Occurs in young population w/in minutes to hours of a head injury • Caused by intracranial clot resulting in diffuse brain swelling w/ little or no brain injury • Swelling is the result of hyperemia or vascular engorgement - results in increased pressure • Signs and Symptoms • Rapid neurologic deterioration that progresses to coma and occasionally death • Management • Life-threatening condition requiring immediate attention at an emergency care facility

  27. Epidural Hematoma • Etiology • Blow to head or skull fracture which tears meningeal arteries • Blood pressure, blood accumulation and creation of hematoma occur rapidly (minutes to hours) • Signs and Symptoms • LOC followed by period of lucidity, showing few signs and symptoms of serious head injury • Gradual progression of S&S • Head pains, dizziness, nausea, dilation of one pupil (same side as injury), deterioration of consciousness, neck rigidity, depression of pulse and respiration, and convulsion • Management • Requires urgent neurosurgical care; CT may be necessary for diagnosis • Must relieve pressure to avoid disability or death

  28. Subdural Hematoma • Etiology • Result of acceleration/deceleration forces that tear vessels that bridge dura mater and brain • May be: • Acute (rapidly progressing) • In association with other brain/skull injury • Chronic (Due to venous bleeding – slow bleed, w/out serious intracranial pressure) • Signs and Symptoms • With a simple subdural hematoma LOC generally does not occur

  29. Subdural Hematoma (continued) • Signs and Symptoms • Complicated subdural hematoma’s result in LOC, dilation of one pupil • Both will show signs of headache, dizziness, nausea or sleepiness • Management • Immediate medical attention • CT or MRI is necessary to determine extent of injury

  30. Intracerebral Hematoma Epidural Hematoma Subdural Hematoma Figure 26-6

  31. Migraine Headaches • Etiology • Disordered characterized by recurrent attacks of severe headache • Seen in those that have had repeated head trauma • Exact cause unknown (believed to be vascular) • Triggers could include food, medications, sensory stimuli (lights, odors), lifestyle changes, changes in estrogen levels • Signs and Symptoms • Sudden onset w/ possible visual or gastrointestinal problems

  32. Migraines (continued) • Signs and Symptoms • Flashes of light, blindness (half field vision), paresthesia • Throbbing pain, located on one side of head • Sensitivity to light, sound or smells • May experience tingling sensations or numbness in arms or legs, or even dizziness • Management • Prevention is key • Prescription medications have a high success rate

  33. Scalp Injuries • Etiology • Blunt trauma or penetrating trauma tends to be the cause • Can occur in conjunction with serious head trauma • Signs and Symptoms • Patient complains of blow to the head • Bleeding is often extensive (difficult to pinpoint exact site) • Management • Clean w/ antiseptic soap and water (remove debris) • Cut away hair if necessary to expose area • Apply firm pressure or astringent to reduce bleeding • Wounds larger than 1/2 inch in depth should be referred • Smaller wounds can be covered w/ protective covering and gauze (use extra adherent)

  34. Recognition of Jaw and Facial Injuries

  35. Figure 26-7

  36. Mandible Fractures Etiology Direct blow (generally fractures at frontal angle) Signs and Symptoms Deformity, loss of occlusion, pain with biting, bleeding around teeth, lower lip anesthesia Management Temporary immobilization w/ elastic wrap followed by reduction and fixation Figure 26-8

  37. Mandibular Dislocation • Etiology • Involves TMJ joint • MOI is generally a blow to an open mouth from the side • Signs and Symptoms • Dislocated jaw presents in locked-open position w/ ROM minimal along w/ poor occlusion • Management • Cold application, elastic wrap immobilization and reduction • Follow-up w/ soft diet, NSAID’s and analgesics w/ a gradual return to activity 7-10 days following acute period • Can be recurrent or result in malocclusion, or TMJ dysfunction

  38. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction • Etiology • Disk condyle derangement (disk is positioned anteriorly) • Signs and Symptoms • Headaches, earaches, vertigo, inflammation, neck pain, muscle guarding and trigger points • Hyper- or hypomobility, muscle dysfunction, limited ROM, clicking and popping • Management • Treat with custom designed, removable mouth piece • Treat problem w/ either strengthening or stretching • If corrective measures fail, referral to a dentist will be necessary

  39. Zygomatic complex (cheekbone) fracture • Etiology • MOI = direct blow • Signs and Symptoms • Deformity, or bony discrepancy, nosebleed, diplopia, and numbness in cheek • Management • Cold application to control edema and immediate referral to a physician • Healing will take 6-8 weeks and proper protective gear will be required upon return to play

  40. Maxillary fracture • Etiology • MOI = blow to upper jaw • Signs and Symptoms • Pain with chewing, malocclusion, nosebleed, double vision, numbness of lip and cheek region • Management • Due to severe bleeding, airway must be maintained • Must be aware of possible brain injury • Transport hospital immediately, upright and leaning forward if conscious • Allows for external drainage of saliva and blood • Fracture reduction, fixation and immobilization

  41. Facial Lacerations Etiology Result of a direct impact, and indirect compressive force or contact w/ a sharp object S&S Pain, substantial bleeding, Management Apply pressure to control bleeding Referral to a physician will be necessary for stitches

  42. Dental and Nasal Injuries

  43. Figure 26-10

  44. Prevention of Dental Injuries • When engaged in contact/collision sports mouth guards should be routinely worn • Greatly reduces the incidence of oral injuries • Practice good dental hygiene • Dental screenings should occur yearly • Cavity prevention • Prevention of abscess development, gingivitis, and periodontitis

  45. Recognition and Management of Specific Dental Injuries

  46. Tooth Fractures Etiology Impact to the jaw, direct trauma Signs and Symptoms Uncomplicated fractures produce fragments w/out bleeding Complicated fractures produce bleeding, w/ the tooth chamber being exposed w/ a great deal of pain Root fractures are difficult to determine and require follow-up w/ X-ray Figure 26-11

  47. Management • Uncomplicated and complicated crown fractures do not require immediate attention • Fractured pieces can be placed in a bag and if not sensitive to air or cold, follow-up can wait for 24-48 hours • Bleeding can be controlled via gauze • Cosmetic reconstruction of tooth • In instances of root fractures, the patient can continue to play but must follow-up immediately following competition • Tooth repositioning may be required, along with bracing and the use of mouthpieces in the future • Mandibular fractures and concussions must also be ruled out Figure 26-12

  48. Tooth Subluxation, Luxation and Avulsion • Etiology • Direct blow • Signs and Symptoms • Tooth may be slightly loosened, dislodged • When subluxed tooth may be loose w/in socket w/ little or no pain • With luxations, no fracture has occurred, however, there is displacement • W/ an avulsion, the tooth is completely knocked from the oral cavity • Management • For a subluxed tooth, referral should occur w/in the first 48 hours • With a luxated tooth, repositioning should be attempted along w/ immediate follow-up • Avulsed teeth should not be re-implanted except by a dentist (use a Save a Tooth Kit, milk or saline)

  49. Nasal Injuries Nasal Fractures and Chondral Separation Etiology Direct blow Signs and Symptoms Separation of frontal processes of maxilla, separation of lateral cartilage or combination Profuse bleeding and hemorrhaging, immediate swelling and deformity Figure 26-14

  50. Management Control bleeding and refer to a physician for X-ray, examination and reduction Uncomplicated and simple fractures will pose little problem for the athlete’s quick return Splinting may be necessary Figure 26-14

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