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Objectives

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  1. Objectives • After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: • Describe social aspects of tourism • List Cohen’s social-cultural impacts of tourism • Discuss the typologies of tourism • Examine social impacts of tourism • Identify governments role in social tourism

  2. International tourism Became a major modern mass phenomenon after 1945 Came to embrace practically all social classes in industrialized Western societies Made possible by rising standards of living and shortening of the work year Tourism is the spatial separation between “home” and “away” and travel between Tourists Then and Now

  3. Social aspects of tourism: Motivations Roles and social relations of tourists Structure and dynamics of the tourism system and of touristic institutions Nature of attractions and their representations Impact of tourism on host societies Tourists (cont’d.)

  4. Sociocultural impacts of tourism Different but overlapping viewpoints: Tourism impact studies Host–guest interactions Tourist systems Tourists and their behavior Tourists (cont’d.)

  5. Social and cultural aspects of tourism Relationships between society, institutions, tourists, and host communities Some are tangible Varies according to destination and community Popular destinations may become overcrowded during season Results in very tangible and often negative outcomes Tourists (cont’d.)

  6. United Nations Millennium Summit Issued a declaration Key features emphasized caring for vulnerable and enabling participation by all citizens First time world leaders committed to a time-bound series of targets and benchmarks by 2015 Tourists (cont’d.)

  7. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Issued a declaration Harnessing Tourism for Millennium Development Goals Recognized economic benefits of tourism as well as its potential to be destructive Tourists (cont’d.)

  8. Tourist typologies: Reflect diversity of individual motivations, styles, interests, and values of tourists Cohen introduced typologies based on age and the economy Smith described demographic aspects of tourism and defined destination interests and motivations Typologies of Tourists

  9. Harmony between guests, hosts, and communities Can be destroyed if unprepared Common behavior and body language may be rude and unacceptable elsewhere If hosts do not deliver the expected services, disappointment may set in Doxey’s index of tourist irritation Describes how communities react to increasing levels of tourism Tourist-Host Interactions

  10. Figure 10–1 • Doxey’s Irridex of Tourist Irritation Source: Adapted from Doxey GV

  11. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Four characteristics of tourist–host relationships: Its transitory nature Temporal and spatial constraints Lack of spontaneity Unequal and unbalanced experiences Interactions (cont’d.)

  12. Inskeep suggests the scope and depth of the encounters include: Basic value and logic system Religious beliefs, traditions, and customs Lifestyles and behavioral patterns Dress codes Sense of time budgeting Attitude toward strangers Interactions (cont’d.)

  13. Example of too much tourism: Peru’s Inca citadel of Machu Picchu Threatened by unregulated growth Hotel and restaurant construction is contributing to destabilization of the structures UNESCO may add it to its list of endangered World Heritage sites Too Much Tourism?

  14. Tourism brings change Welcomed by some segments of society Causing debates among others Different observers may see the same tourist attraction differently Commercialization forces change Public ritual in Fuenterrabia was originally a statement of the courage and equality of all people Was promoted and now has lost its authenticity and meaning for the people Tourism and Social Change

  15. Figure 10–2 • Some Costs and Benefits of Tourism to a Community

  16. Demonstration effect Phenomenon of local residents adopting visiting tourists styles and manners (e.g., blue jeans and Scotch whisky) Tourism is not always to blame for diluting of culture Mass communications have greatly contributed to it Social Change (cont’d.)

  17. Is quality of life reduced by tourism? Yes, if the destination is not prepared Highly subjective matter Negatives: traffic congestion, increased crime, noise, etc. Positives: employment creation, income redistribution, and poverty alleviation Social Change (cont’d.)

  18. Social impacts may include: Revival of art, dance, and crafts When arts and crafts are made outside the host community, this results in job and revenue loss Tourism can encourage crime Tourists can slow residents’ way of life Tourists unduly influence the host community culture Host community may resent tourists Social Change (cont’d.)

  19. Tourists also change May or may not be interested in the host history or culture Study assessing British tourists to Greece and others visiting Morocco Attitudes toward the host peoples changed as a result of the two- to three-week tours Social Change (cont’d.)

  20. Extremely diverse and complex phenomenon Meaning varies depending on time periods and countries under discussion Usually defined in terms of objectives pursued, methods employed for achieving them, and outcomes of participation Social Tourism

  21. Social tourism implies government supplies a partial subsidy for travel or experience Government-owned and –operated tourist businesses in former communist countries Europe, subsidized vacations Social Tourism (cont’d.)

  22. Social tourism in France Pierre Combes, former mayor of Nyons Long been active in promotion of “social tourism” Headed VAL, a nonprofit organization Combats desertification in rural areas Promotes social policies to create tourism infrastructures Active in National Open-Air Tourism Social Tourism (cont’d.)

  23. Tourism Concern Independent charity in the United Kingdom Goal is to fight tourism exploitation Based on: Independence Listening Shared values and vision Inclusivity Ethical practices Social Tourism (cont’d.)

  24. Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership Collaborative research project Approach to tourism that results in increased net benefits for poor people Strategies include: Increasing economic benefits Enhancing noneconomic benefits Policy reform Social Tourism (cont’d.)

  25. Social tourism in the U.S. It does exist (e.g., state and federal parks, YMCA, YWCA, church camps) Is it desirable in the U.S.? Considerations: Rationing use Controlling the environment Avoiding pollution Social Tourism (cont’d.)

  26. Most of the federal parks are located in western states Represents social tourism for those who can afford to travel considerable distances State resort parks offer affordable recreational experiences Could be made available at reduced rates for the less affluent Social Tourism (cont’d.)