Chapter 2: Gender Development . Biology, Sexuality, and Health. Chapter 2: Gender Development - Concepts. Essentialism Margaret Mead Sex hormones/chromosomes Sociobiology Infant-father bonding Freud Intersexed & Sexual Dimorphism Transsexual & Transgender Gender Identity.
>In fact, no existing theory, especially those grounded in essentialism, can explain the immense variety of meanings attached to being male and female.
>Therefore, we can identify biological differences and similarities between female and male, but to determine how these relate to what is considered “masculine” and “feminine” the world over is difficult.
>The biological basis for sex differences stems from research on prenatal hormones and brain development.
>Androgens help determine how our bodies, including our brains, becomes sexually differentiated.
>Higher levels of androgens predict more male-typical than female-typical behavior.
Examples that defy “maternal instinct”:
> Women that suffer from postpartum depression & may even reject their child
>Infanticide, voluntary abortion, and neglect by mothers
>Number of voluntarily childless women also continues to increase.