Section II: Trade and Towns Grow (Pages 296-301) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Section II: Trade and Towns Grow (Pages 296-301)

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  1. This section is about: How trade revived as a result of agricultural improvements and the growth of trade fairs. How trade contributed to the growth of towns, and how it was adversely affected by the Black Death. Cultural achievements of this period. Section II: Trade and Towns Grow (Pages 296-301) C

  2. Look at the vocab. words on page 296. And, the picture on 296: what are they doing? And… the picture on 299 – what’s going on? One thing that helps when you read: look for what you’re going to read about. Each page has a red lettered heading on it. Let’s preview what this section’s about. C

  3. By 1000, there were agricultural changes in Europe that led to new trade growth. The invention of an iron plow. An new way to team up and harness horses. Windmills as a source of power. Rotating crops led to bigger yields. Better markets for selling surplus crops. The Revival of Trade 1 C

  4. Fairs started to develop: often at key trading routes (near rivers?). These were safe places to buy and sell products. They were also places to socialize, share news, and maybe even be entertained. In the Middle Ages, they even started to develop into bigger events, with large cities taking turns hosting these events. Trade at Home and Abroad 2 C

  5. Northern: The Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Germans formed a group to protect it’s members from pirates and foreign competition. Southern: The Mediterranean Sea (especially Venice). By the 1200’s, Venice was rich – from trade and from things crusaders brought back. Genoa also became rich – as a money changing center (banking). They controlled what everyone’s money was worth compared to each other. Regional Trade Routes C

  6. Medieval towns and cities started growing at this time. Before 1000: the manor system and the feudal system. By 1300, more people were moving to cities, so there were less serfs and peasants. The Growth of Towns C

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  8. The trading and commercial centers of this time ended up and becoming towns (with about 500-3000 people). The idea of city-states was reborn – with people governing themselves (not a “lord” of a manor). French and English people were even asking for written agreements to choose their own leaders and set up their own courts. To get this, it did mean paying taxes to the king. These merchants and craftspeople (burghers) started a middle class of citizens who had rights of personal liberty. Merchants and the New Middle Class 3 C

  9. The merchants and craftspeople at this time formed guilds (people who perform the same craft or specialty). This guild would promote the business and the personal well-being of it’s members (like a union today). The guilds were made up of merchants, bakers , weavers, tailors, dyers, goldsmiths, etc…). Establishing Guilds Middle Ages Guilds C

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  11. Guilds: Set standards for products and services. (If your product or service was bad, or you didn’t obey the rules, you were fined). Regulated or controlled competition between members (fairness, working conditions, hours, etc…). Provided education and training for it’s members: start as an apprentice (learner), move to journeyman, and then become a master. Guilds could also often end up being a social group of people with common personal interests and needs. 4 5 C

  12. At the start of the 1300’s, there were food shortages, and then high prices. Then came the most serious of crises: massive disease known as the plague or the Black Death (spots of blood turned black under your skin). In the 1300’s: up to 1/3 of all people died from starvation or the Plague. Plague and Social Upheaval C

  13. In 5 years, about 25 million people died in Europe and Asia. No-one knew how the epidemic (disease that affects a large number of people) spread. Your best chance of surviving was to move away from people. It probably spread through fleas (people had fleas then – they were everywhere), who had bitten rats (who were everywhere then). Rats also liked to travel – on trading ships, so the disease could spread to new places. We should look at the picture on page 299. The Spread of the Plague 6 C

  14. The Black Death was probably a combination of 3-4 different diseases. Some people died right away (like they were poisoned). Others fell into a deep sleep/coma for about a week, and then died. The people with black spots probably had bubonic plague. Others had the Pneumonic Plague (spread through the air and into people’s lungs). Another form struck the central nervous system and caused convulsions. Some places were worse than others. Half of Florence, Italy died. About 1000 English towns/villages were completely gone. Some places couldn’t even bury all the dead. You probably do not want to see the next 2 pictures REALLY I MEAN IT C

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  16. The Black Death was the most significant natural event of the Middle Ages. It took 250 years for the population to grow to the same size. Farms were now smaller. Trade was affected (shortage of workers). The people who were left were much more valuable, so they got to live better lives. Consequences of the Black Death Do the rest on your own 7 C

  17. There were some achievements during this time in The most important philosopher of the time: St. Thomas Aquinas. He wanted to unite Aristotle’s ideas, Christian ideas, and world knowledge into one belief system. Life and Culture and… Philosophy, Education, and Literature C

  18. This is also the time (1200’s) of the first universities in Europe: in Paris, France, Bologna, Italy, and Oxford, England. People could now officially study philosophy, theology, (religious teachings), law, and medicine. People also stopped using Latin for the language of education and started using their own (the vernacular). This led to new forms of literature (poetry, romance, fiction, comedy, and drama) – which appealed to much larger audiences. Now: even people without an education could enjoy themselves. C

  19. Dante Alighieri (Italian) wrote in Italian. He’s thought of as the Father of Italian Literature. His masterpiece (The Divine Comedy) wrote an imaginary tale about his soul’s 10 day journey from hell to heaven. Geoffrey Chaucer (English). Wrote The Canterbury Tales: a poem told from the point of view of pilgrims. Two Medieval Writers C

  20. This is the last slide for today Make sure page "C" is completed C