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Nanotechnology: Applications and Implications for the Environment. Welcome . Upcoming EBC Meetings. Nov 3 - New Nuclear Power and Climate Change: Issues and Opportunities Nov 6 - Env. Industry Forecast w/ Paul Zofnass Nov 15 - EPA VOC Control/Stack Testing Workshop in Waterbury

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upcoming ebc meetings

Upcoming EBC Meetings

Nov 3 - New Nuclear Power and Climate Change: Issues and OpportunitiesNov 6 - Env. Industry Forecast w/ Paul Zofnass

Nov 15 - EPA VOC Control/Stack Testing Workshop in Waterbury

Nov 30 - Reception – An Evening with Commissioner Gina McCarthy Dec 6 – Winter Garden Party in Boston

ebc mission statement
EBC Mission Statement

The mission of the Environmental Business Council of New England, Inc. (EBC) is to advance and promote the environmental and energy services and technology businesses in New England.

  • Provides programs on current legislative, regulatory, and technology developments that shape the future of the environmental/energy industry
  • Provides direct access to regulators and industry leaders to discuss developing issues
  • Offers networking and business development opportunities for its members
  • Supports and promotes sustainable environmental policies and practices for business and government
  • Fosters the development of future generations of the industry through academic partnerships and mentoring and training opportunities
  • Provides access to market research
nanotechnology applications and implications for the environment1

Nanotechnology: Applications and Implications for the Environment

Brenda Barry

Senior Toxicologist

The Cadmus Group

nanotechnology applications and implications for the environment2

Nanotechnology: Applications and Implications for the Environment

Robert H. Hurt

Professor of Fluid Thermal and Chemical Processes

Dept. of Engineering, Brown University

slide6

A Materials Science Perspective on Developing Nanomaterials

for Commercial and Environmental Applications

Brown University, Providence RI

Robert H. Hurt, Ph.D. Agnes B. Kane, M.D., Ph.D.

Indrek Kulaots, Ph.D. Charles A. Vaslet, Ph.D.

Lin Guo Bonnie Lau

Kengquing Jian Margaret Tsien

Xinyuan Liu Norma Messier

Daniel Morris Nathan Miselis

Love Sarin Jodie Pietruska

Bevan Weissman Samuel Posner

Aihui Yan Vanesa Sanchez

We acknowledge support from the following grants:

US EPA (STAR Grant RD83171901)

NSF (DMI-050661)

NIEHS (R01 ES03721, P42 ES013660, T32 ES07272, F30 ES013639)

slide7

© Hyperion catalysis website

The Nanotechnology Movement

about 1/1000 width

of human hair

Definition

the systematic manipulation of matter on the length scale 1-100 nm

to produce useful new engineered structures, materials, or devices.

History

- R. Feynman, 1959, “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”

- Kroto, Smalley, Curl, 1985, synthesis of Fullerene, C60

- Sumio Iijima, 1991, carbon nanotube synthesis

Nanotechnology today

-1600 companies, 700 industrial products

- world-wide investment of 4.8 billion $ / yr

The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)

- first passed in 2001

- now ~ 1 billion $ / yr

- optimistic status report: May 2005

- four phases envisioned (now in phase 1)

slide8

Nanotechnology is the development of….

Nanoparticles

- buckminster fullerene

- metallic nanoparticles (gold, silver, iron)

- glass/ceramic nanoparticles (titania, silica)

- quantum dots (semiconductor nanoparticles)

Nanotubes, nanofibers

- carbon nanotubes

- nanofibers (carbon, polymer, ceramic)

- nanowires (metallic, semiconducting)

Nanoplatelets

Nanoplatelet graphite, clay,

silica, hydroxyapatite

Nanostructured surfaces

Nanostructured solids

and their application as

components for next-generation

technologies, including:

batteries, fuel cells, sunscreens,

cosmetics, structural materials,

implants, drug delivery vehicles,

catalysts, sorbents, and

much, much more…….

slide9

aerosol

nanoparticle

incandescence

(black-body radiation)

for room lighting

http://nam.epfl.ch/res50.en.html

Medieval Nanotechnology

noble metal nanoparticles

for wavelength-tunable pigmentation based

on confined plasmon resonance

slide10

The Nanomaterial Matrix

(some well-known examples)

Lamellar forms

(2D materials)

Equi-axed forms

(particles)

Fibrous forms

(1D materials)

Au nanoparticles

Fe magnetic nanoparticles

nanopart. catalysts (Pt,Zn,Cu,Ni,Co…)

metals

nanowires

semiconducting

nanowires, nanorods

semiconductors

quantum dots

electrospun ceramic

nanofibers for

composite fillers

nanophase powders for low-T

sinterable coatings, parts,

composite fillers, sorbents

ceramics

nano-clays

carbon nanotubes,

nanofibers

carbons

fullerenes, carbon black, nanohorns

nano-graphite

electrospun

polymer nanofibers

biodegradable polymer nanobeads

for medical applications

polymers

oligomers (e.g. chitosan)

branched compounds (dendrimers)

surfactant assemblies (liposomes)

other

slide11

Soot

Singlewall nanotube bundle

Thess et al., Science 1996

Haljoligal and coworkers

Carbon, 2004

Fullerenic

soot

Goel et al.

Carbon, 2004

Multiwall

nanotube

Iijima et al., Nature 1991

A Gallery of Carbon Nanoforms

slide12

Nanohorns

Iijima et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 1999

Onions

Nanowindow control

by oxidation

10 mm

Ugarte, 1993

Kaneko, Carbon2004

Graphitic

Cones

Jaszcek et al.

Carbon cover

A Gallery of Carbon Nanoforms

slide13

Peapods (C60 in SWNT)

1 nm

Smith, Monthioux, LuzziNature 396(1998)323

Gloter et al., Chem.Phys.Lett 2004

Templated nanotube array

J. Xu, Brown University

Shells

A Gallery of Carbon Nanoforms

slide14

Some Nanomaterials are

Expensive to Synthesize

Arc evaporation

Laser vaporization

from Ando, Zhao, Sugai, Kumar, Materials Today 2004

slide15

Catalytic methods now dominant for nanotube synthesis

hydrocarbon

decomposition

from Rodriguez et al. 1995

diffusion

graphene

layer

precipitation

Multiwall carbon nanotubes

Herringbone carbon nanofibers

slide16

dispersion is key

in 102% H2SO4

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

[Davis et al.,

Macromolecules, 2004]

A Diversity of Applications

Conductive Plastics

Tough Composite Materials

Percolation

threshold

crack bridging

Rich et al. ,SAE. Paper 2002-01-1037

fiber pullout

[Xia et al. Acta Materialia, 2004]

slide17

Applications: Electrodes [Endo et al., Carbon 2001]

Floating catalyst method

Li

battery

performance

Composite electrode

increasing

nanotube

content

slide18

Nanomedicine: polymer/gold nanoparticles for drug delivery

-- Nanomedicine Research of Prof. Edith Mathiowitz --

slide19

Nanostructured Surfaces for Biomedical Implants

Research of Prof. Tom Webster

  • Compared to currently implanted
  • materials, results from Prof. Webster’s
  • lab shows increased regeneration of:
    • orthopedic,
    • dental,
    • vascular,
    • bladder,
    • cartilage, and
    • nervous system
  • tissue on nanophase materials.

microns

6

6

1.3

4

0

microns

2

6

4

0

0

2

microns

0

Conventional Grain Size

microns

6

1.3

4

0

microns

2

6

4

0

2

microns

0

Nanophase Grain Size

T. J. Webster, in Advances in Chemical Engineering Vol. 27, Academic Press, NY, pgs. 125-166, 2001.

slide20

Nanomedicine research

of Profs. Sun (chemistry)

and Nurmikko (engineering)

Silica coated Fe3O4

Organic Dye

Linker molecule

Magnetic nanoparticle-dye composite for cancer diagnostics and treatment

~60nm

  • Magnetic nanoparticle synthesis and surface modification
  • Magnetic hyperthermia

Biological targeting molecule

slide21

Biocompatible, hydrophilic, supramolecular

carbon nanoparticles for cell delivery (Hurt/Kane)

ultrasonic

nebulization

of lyotropic

liquid crystal

solution

drying

carbonization

annealing

slide22

Cell Uptake

and

Cytotoxicity

of

Supramolecular

Carbon

Nanoparticles

slide23

Size Control

(via solution concentration)

Carrier mechanism

CONH-R

CONH-Protein

coating

oxidation

covalent

coupling

for

phagocytic

delivery

COOH

HO

O

enhanced

hydrophilicity for dispersion

SO3H

SO3H

sulfonation

for

endocytic

delivery

micropore

adsorption

for

extracellular

delivery

incorporation

Carbon Nanospheres as Biomolecular Carriers

Carbon platform

modifications

Fe/Co doped for magnetic steering

acid wash

surface

adsorption

slide24

Doped Supramolecular

Carbon Nanoparticles

for Cancer Therapy

300 nm

slide25

“Magic Nano”

March 2006 – “Magic Nano” bathroom sealant released to stores in Germany

Health problems reported by 97 consumers ranging from breathing trouble to

hospitalization from pulmonary edema

March 28th 2006 – product recalled by German Federal Government

Small Times, April 27th

Company scientist claims the product contains no nanoparticles!

Is existing product whose formulation switched from pump to spray can

Fine droplets (< 10 micrometers) form thin silica film (100 nm) that seals cracks