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The Age of the City

The Age of the City

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The Age of the City

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  1. The Age of the City Ch. 18

  2. Immigration23.2 Million in 1850 and 76.2 Million in 1900. Reasons for Immigration: (Pushes and Pulls) • Poverty in Europe • Overcrowding and joblessness in Europe • Religious persecution. • Old Immigrants: Western Europe, Germany, British Isles, & Scandinavia. • New Immigrants: Eastern Europe, Italians, Greeks, Croats, Slovaks, Poles, and Russians. • 25% of immigrants were “birds of passage”, young men contracted for unskilled labor that would move back to Europe once they made decent wages. • African Americans- Move north to resist oppression and to find job opportunities.

  3. Restricting Immigration 1870- Very few restrictions on immigration 1886- Congress had passes new laws restricting immigration. • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882- Ban on all new immigrants from China. • Restrictions on “undesirable” persons (criminal acts or mentally incompetent) • Law in 1885 prohibited contract labor in order to protect American workers. • Ellis Island opens in 1892 -More medical and document examinations -Pay entry tax to come into the US.

  4. Support of Restricting Immigration • Labor Unions- WHY??? • Nativist society called the American Protective Association • Social Darwinists-WHY??? • Immigrants still came in great numbers and the Statue of Liberty becomes the emblem of hope for many people.

  5. Urbanization • Urbanization and Industrialization become almost inseparable. • People start moving from the rural life to the city life. • 1900 40% of Americans lived in cities or towns • 1920 more Americans lived in urban instead of rural communities.

  6. Changes in the Nature of Cities • Streetcars- Horse-drawn streetcars, by 1890’s replaced by electric trolleys, elevated railroads, and subways. Building of the Brooklyn Bridge. • Skyscrapers- William Le Baron Jenny built the first true skyscraper (Home Insurance Company Building) Electric elevators and steel make it possible

  7. Parks in the City • Frederick Law Olmsted- Famous landscape designer who designed Central Park and many other famous parks. • Tried to bring nature into the city. • “Great White City”- Nickname for the good-side of the city. • The Wealthy in the city invest in museums, theaters, art galleries, etc..

  8. Ethnic Neighborhoods Downtown mostly consisted of the poor. -Landlords would make housing as small as possible without windows to make more profit. -Overcrowding led to spread of disease and sicknesses. -New York City passed a law in 1879 to require a window in every house. -Ethnic groups gather in their own neighborhoods and preserve their culture. -Many immigrants assimilate to American culture (Americanization)

  9. Suburbs • Wealthiest in the US start moving outside the city (unlike in Europe) Why? • Abundant land • Inexpensive transportation by rail. • Low-cost construction methods • Ethnic and racial prejudice. • American fondness for grass, privacy, and detached individual homes.

  10. Rise in Mass Consumption • Rising Income (White Collar Jobs) • Rise in Middle Class • Mass production = cheaper goods • Purchase of clothing (Big Deal) • Department stores and Mail-Order- Change America • Everyone, even farmers are influenced by consumption. • Women greatly increased consumption of clothing and most all of them could afford to.

  11. Private versus Public City • People wanted a city with little government involvement • Problem: Waste, pollution, disease, crime, etc… • Solution: Water purification, sewerage systems, waste disposal, street lighting, police departments, zoning laws, etc…

  12. Boss and Machine Politics • Political parties in cities started getting controlled by tightly organized groups of politicians known as political machines. • Political machines had a boss, the top politician who gave orders and opportunity to those who were loyal. • Tammany Hall- New York City, would provide many favors to businesses, immigrants, underprivileged in return for a vote. Used corruption and graft • Many corrupt political machines would steal public funds such as Boss Tweed.

  13. Awakening of Reform • Henry George wrote “Progress and Poverty” -Examined the effects of laissez-faire economics (argued it caused inequalities) • Edward Bellamy wrote “Looking Backward, 2000-1887. -Predicted a future America without poverty, greed, and crime. • Books help shift American opinion toward greater government regulation.

  14. Settlement Houses • Hull House in Chicago • Jane Addams started this settlement house to help relieve the effects of poverty on immigrants. • Addams taught English, pioneered early childhood education, taught industrial arts, and established neighborhood theaters and music schools.

  15. Religion in Society • Social Gospel- 1880’s and 1890’s- Protestant clergymen argued for social justice for the poor. • It is a Christians obligation to serve the poor.

  16. Families and Women in Urban Society • Severely hurt families because it kept them from extended family. • Divorce rates increased going into the 1900’s. • Birth rate decreased significantly. • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony start the National American Woman Suffrage movement and 1869 Wyoming became the first state to grant full suffrage to women.

  17. Temperance and Morality • Women argued drinking was a main cause for poverty. • Women’s Christian Temperance Union was formed in 1874 to help with this problem. • Antisaloon League (1893) convinced 21 states to close down an saloons and bars. • Carry A. Nation of Kansas went around raiding saloons and smashing barrels of licker. • Anthony Comstock of New York started a movement to end vice, obscenity, and prostitution. • Comstock Law (1873)- Prohibited the mailing or transportation of obscene and lewd materials and photographs.

  18. Leisure Time • Why was leisure time new to most Americans? • Why were they hesitant to have leisure time? • Spectator sports (Gambling) • Baseball (America’s national pastime) • Basketball • Football • Boxing • Fourth of July held great significance, why?

  19. Forms of Entertainment Vaudeville • Form of theater adapted from French models • Included musicians, comedians, magicians, jugglers, etc… • Extremely popular and even allowed blacks to be a part of it. Movies- Edison made these possible. • Birth of a Nation- 1915: Celebrated the KKK and racist messages. Newspapers- Huge increase in newspapers in the late 19th century. *Telegraph made it possible for newspapers to standardize their product and news throughout the US. Yellow Journalism- Sensationalize information to draw more interest.

  20. Darwinism Many Americans start to follow the idea of “natural selection” Pragmatism- Theory that called for a reliance on scientific inquiry instead moral principles.

  21. Public Education • Spread of free public primary and secondary education. • Colleges increasing in great numbers • Morrill Land Grant- Helped produce “land-grant institutions” • Introduction of women colleges.