The Age of the City Ch. 18
Immigration23.2 Million in 1850 and 76.2 Million in 1900. Reasons for Immigration: (Pushes and Pulls) • Poverty in Europe • Overcrowding and joblessness in Europe • Religious persecution. • Old Immigrants: Western Europe, Germany, British Isles, & Scandinavia. • New Immigrants: Eastern Europe, Italians, Greeks, Croats, Slovaks, Poles, and Russians. • 25% of immigrants were “birds of passage”, young men contracted for unskilled labor that would move back to Europe once they made decent wages. • African Americans- Move north to resist oppression and to find job opportunities.
Restricting Immigration 1870- Very few restrictions on immigration 1886- Congress had passes new laws restricting immigration. • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882- Ban on all new immigrants from China. • Restrictions on “undesirable” persons (criminal acts or mentally incompetent) • Law in 1885 prohibited contract labor in order to protect American workers. • Ellis Island opens in 1892 -More medical and document examinations -Pay entry tax to come into the US.
Support of Restricting Immigration • Labor Unions- WHY??? • Nativist society called the American Protective Association • Social Darwinists-WHY??? • Immigrants still came in great numbers and the Statue of Liberty becomes the emblem of hope for many people.
Urbanization • Urbanization and Industrialization become almost inseparable. • People start moving from the rural life to the city life. • 1900 40% of Americans lived in cities or towns • 1920 more Americans lived in urban instead of rural communities.
Changes in the Nature of Cities • Streetcars- Horse-drawn streetcars, by 1890’s replaced by electric trolleys, elevated railroads, and subways. Building of the Brooklyn Bridge. • Skyscrapers- William Le Baron Jenny built the first true skyscraper (Home Insurance Company Building) Electric elevators and steel make it possible
Parks in the City • Frederick Law Olmsted- Famous landscape designer who designed Central Park and many other famous parks. • Tried to bring nature into the city. • “Great White City”- Nickname for the good-side of the city. • The Wealthy in the city invest in museums, theaters, art galleries, etc..
Ethnic Neighborhoods Downtown mostly consisted of the poor. -Landlords would make housing as small as possible without windows to make more profit. -Overcrowding led to spread of disease and sicknesses. -New York City passed a law in 1879 to require a window in every house. -Ethnic groups gather in their own neighborhoods and preserve their culture. -Many immigrants assimilate to American culture (Americanization)
Suburbs • Wealthiest in the US start moving outside the city (unlike in Europe) Why? • Abundant land • Inexpensive transportation by rail. • Low-cost construction methods • Ethnic and racial prejudice. • American fondness for grass, privacy, and detached individual homes.
Rise in Mass Consumption • Rising Income (White Collar Jobs) • Rise in Middle Class • Mass production = cheaper goods • Purchase of clothing (Big Deal) • Department stores and Mail-Order- Change America • Everyone, even farmers are influenced by consumption. • Women greatly increased consumption of clothing and most all of them could afford to.
Private versus Public City • People wanted a city with little government involvement • Problem: Waste, pollution, disease, crime, etc… • Solution: Water purification, sewerage systems, waste disposal, street lighting, police departments, zoning laws, etc…
Boss and Machine Politics • Political parties in cities started getting controlled by tightly organized groups of politicians known as political machines. • Political machines had a boss, the top politician who gave orders and opportunity to those who were loyal. • Tammany Hall- New York City, would provide many favors to businesses, immigrants, underprivileged in return for a vote. Used corruption and graft • Many corrupt political machines would steal public funds such as Boss Tweed.
Awakening of Reform • Henry George wrote “Progress and Poverty” -Examined the effects of laissez-faire economics (argued it caused inequalities) • Edward Bellamy wrote “Looking Backward, 2000-1887. -Predicted a future America without poverty, greed, and crime. • Books help shift American opinion toward greater government regulation.
Settlement Houses • Hull House in Chicago • Jane Addams started this settlement house to help relieve the effects of poverty on immigrants. • Addams taught English, pioneered early childhood education, taught industrial arts, and established neighborhood theaters and music schools.
Religion in Society • Social Gospel- 1880’s and 1890’s- Protestant clergymen argued for social justice for the poor. • It is a Christians obligation to serve the poor.
Families and Women in Urban Society • Severely hurt families because it kept them from extended family. • Divorce rates increased going into the 1900’s. • Birth rate decreased significantly. • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony start the National American Woman Suffrage movement and 1869 Wyoming became the first state to grant full suffrage to women.
Temperance and Morality • Women argued drinking was a main cause for poverty. • Women’s Christian Temperance Union was formed in 1874 to help with this problem. • Antisaloon League (1893) convinced 21 states to close down an saloons and bars. • Carry A. Nation of Kansas went around raiding saloons and smashing barrels of licker. • Anthony Comstock of New York started a movement to end vice, obscenity, and prostitution. • Comstock Law (1873)- Prohibited the mailing or transportation of obscene and lewd materials and photographs.
Leisure Time • Why was leisure time new to most Americans? • Why were they hesitant to have leisure time? • Spectator sports (Gambling) • Baseball (America’s national pastime) • Basketball • Football • Boxing • Fourth of July held great significance, why?
Forms of Entertainment Vaudeville • Form of theater adapted from French models • Included musicians, comedians, magicians, jugglers, etc… • Extremely popular and even allowed blacks to be a part of it. Movies- Edison made these possible. • Birth of a Nation- 1915: Celebrated the KKK and racist messages. Newspapers- Huge increase in newspapers in the late 19th century. *Telegraph made it possible for newspapers to standardize their product and news throughout the US. Yellow Journalism- Sensationalize information to draw more interest.
Darwinism Many Americans start to follow the idea of “natural selection” Pragmatism- Theory that called for a reliance on scientific inquiry instead moral principles.
Public Education • Spread of free public primary and secondary education. • Colleges increasing in great numbers • Morrill Land Grant- Helped produce “land-grant institutions” • Introduction of women colleges.