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Best Practices In College Teaching : Creating an Active Learning Environment

Best Practices In College Teaching : Creating an Active Learning Environment

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Best Practices In College Teaching : Creating an Active Learning Environment

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  1. Best Practices In College Teaching: Creating an Active Learning Environment Debra Dunlap Runshe Instructional Development Specialist University Information Technology Services - Learning Technologies Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis

  2. Webinar Objectives By the end of this webinar, participants will: • articulate a rationale for using active learning in the classroom • describe instructional methods that encourage active learning • identify techniques that can be incorporated into their classes to create an active learning environment • improve student retention and success

  3. K – W - L

  4. What is Active Learning?

  5. Active Learning CATs Problem-based learning Experiential Learning Pause Procedure Class discussion Think-Pair-Share Minute Paper Pro-Con Grid simple complex Longer duration, higher-risk Short, low-risk Cooperative learning (Bonwell & Sutherland, 1996)

  6. Already doing it? • Writing exercises • Student presentations • Computer exercises • Labs • Tests

  7. Why Active Learning?

  8. Why Active Learning? Research has shown that knowledge retention can be significantly increased by creating a welcoming environment and incorporating active learning strategies into your teaching.

  9. Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge (Bloom, 1956)

  10. Encourages contact between faculty and students. Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students. Uses active learning techniques. Gives prompt feedback. Emphasizes time on task. Communicates high expectations. Respects diverse talents and ways of learning. Seven Principles for Good Practice (Chickering & Gamson, 1987)

  11. Passive vs. Active Learning • Students learn both passively and actively. • Passive learning takes place when students take on the role of “receptacles of knowledge”; that is, they do not directly participate in the learning process. • Active learning is more likely to take place when students are doing something besides listening. (Ryans & Martin, 1989)

  12. Retention of Information After 24 hours, what percent of information is retained by students in a lecture environment? • 5% • 10% • 20% • 40% • 50%

  13. Passive vs. Active Learning (Sousa, 2001)

  14. Why Active Learning? • More Evidence on Impact: • Interactive engagement methods lead to improved test performance • Collaborative learning methods enhance/improve academic achievement, student attitudes, and retention • Problem-based learning develops positive student attitudes, interpersonal skills, problem solving and lifelong learning skills, knowledge retention • Cooperative learning methods enhance student achievement, interpersonal skills, self-esteem (Prince, 2004)

  15. Are there cons?

  16. Start Right Away! Use an active learning technique on the first day of class – it sets an expectation of participation form the very beginning of the semester. Start with an activity that is quick and easy. This will help students acclimate to your teaching style as well as help them learn how to participate in collaborative learning.

  17. Start Right Away! Find someone who___???

  18. Start Right Away! • Two ways to actively engage your students through the use of technology: • Chat Sessions • Discussion Forums • At the beginning of the semester: • Assess student technology experience and access to the environment. • Include a demonstration of the online environment. • Establish ground rules for online interactions.

  19. Start Right Away!

  20. Where do I start? • Include your students in the learning process. • Punctuate your lectures. • Deliver a series of smaller lectures in place of one long lecture. • Insert active learning techniques.

  21. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) simple, ungraded activities that can: provide feedback about how your students are doing help your students monitor their own learning focus your students attention on course content through reflection, writing, and speaking allow you to punctuate your lecture with learning activities Easy to Implement Techniques

  22. Examples of Low-Preparation CATs • Background Knowledge Probe • Punctuated Lectures • Minute Paper • The Muddiest Point • Think – Pair – Share • Complete a Sentence Starter (Angelo & Cross, 1993)

  23. Purpose of a Background Knowledge Probe For students, it highlights key information to be studied, offering a preview of material to come and/or a review of prior knowledge. For teachers, it helps determine the best starting point and the most appropriate level for a lesson. For both, it can be used for either pre- or post-lesson assessment of learning.

  24. Examples of Background Knowledge Probe • Pro-Con Grid • Survey/inventory • Place yourself along • the continuum. • “Signs up”

  25. Background Knowledge Probe How familiar are you with Angelo and Cross’s Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers? What assessment techniques, if applicable, do you routinely use in your classes?

  26. Pro-Con Grid Develop a list of what you think would be pros and cons of using active learning techniques and of lecturing. We will then come back together and share what some of those pros and cons are.

  27. Pro-Con Grid

  28. Online Background Knowledge Probe

  29. Pause 3 times for two minutes each during a lecture to allow students to consolidate, share, and compare notes. Assign short, ungraded written exercises followed by class discussion.Give two mini-lectures separated by a small group study session built around a study guide. Large Lecture Techniques

  30. Focus Question • Think • While active learning has the potential to revolutionize instruction, there are many reasons why it doesn’t take place. What are barriers to active learning in the classroom?

  31. Focus Question Think into the future As students leave the university, what are the skills, strategies, concepts, aptitudes, and personal qualities that they will need to be a productive and successful citizen in the coming years?

  32. Focused Listing • Purpose: To help determine what learners recall about a specific topic, including concepts they associate with a central point. • When to use this? • Before, during or after a lesson. • Steps: • Students write key word at the top of a page. For 2–3 minutes, jot down related terms important to the understanding of that topic. • Pair up with peer, sharing lists and explanations of why concepts were included. This will build their knowledge base and clarify their understanding of the topic.

  33. Complete a Sentence Starter Angelo and Cross’s “Minute Paper”, where students typically respond to two questions, is the best-known and most widely-used CAT because...

  34. One Minute Paper What technique do you think you will implement in your next course? Specifically, where do you see its use?

  35. Muddiest Point What about incorporating active learning and classroom assessment techniques into your classroom is still confusing to you?

  36. Memory Matrix

  37. Defining Features Matrix What are the differences between formative evaluation and summative evaluation?

  38. Defining Features Matrix What are the differences between formative evaluation and summative evaluation?

  39. Concept Maps • Brainstorm terms and short phrases related to the topic. • Create a shape for your central topic. • Create levels of association with shapes and lines. • Insert logical connectives on the lines connecting the concepts (such as includes, excludes, causes, results in, predicts, contradicts, supports).

  40. Concept Maps Central Theme Subtopic Detail Subtopic Subtopic

  41. Concept Maps Branches of the Government Legislative Senate Congress Executive Judicial House of Representatives Supreme Court President Vice President

  42. Wiki

  43. Benefits of eLearning • Low participants and shy students sometimes open up. • There are minimal off-task behaviors. • Delayed collaboration is more extensive and rich than real time; real time is more immediate and personal. • Students can generate tons of information or case situations on the Web. (Bonk & King, 1998)

  44. Benefits of eLearning • Minimal student disruptions and dominance. • Students are excited to publish work. • Many forms of online advice are available. Practitioner, expert, instructor, and student online feedback are all valuable and important. (Bonk & King, 1998)

  45. Benefits of eLearning • With the permanence of the postings, one can print out discussions and perform retrospective analysis and other reflection activities. • Discussion extends across the semester and creates opportunities to share perspectives beyond your classroom. • Elearningencourages instructors to coach and guide learning. (Bonk & King, 1998)

  46. Chat Room Activities • Debate • Guest Speaker • Office Hours

  47. Discussion Forum Activities • Peer Review of Projects • Scavenger Hunt • Electronic Séance • Jigsaw

  48. How do I choose?

  49. How do I Choose? What do I want my students to know? What do I want my students to be able to do? How will I assess my students? Objectives Activities Assessments

  50. How do I choose? Course Objectives Personal Style Limited interaction Extensive interaction Acquisition of knowledge Inexperienced Acquisition of skills / attitudes Experienced Less control More control Student Experience (Bonwell & Sutherland, 1996)