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TAKS. Principles of Democracy:. Popular Sovereignty Republicanism Federalism Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Limited Government Individual Rights. Popular Sovereignty :                            The people are the only source of power. 

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Principles of Democracy:

  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Republicanism
  • Federalism
  • Separation of Powers
  • Checks and Balances
  • Limited Government
  • Individual Rights

Greg Byers and Mary Smith, TSSSA 2003


Popular Sovereignty:                       

    The people are the only source of power. 

          "Government can govern only with the consent of the governed"

- it is woven all throughout all parts of the Constitution  

-it sets necessary boundaries that allow the people's voice to be heard and overruled

"We the people of the United ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America..." 

- the sovereign people who created the Constitution and the US government gave to the Constitution certain powers

-through the Constitution and it's own fundamental law, each state government receives it's powers from the people

people elect representatives and give them the responsibility to make laws and conduct government

A Republic is a form of government controlled by the people through elected representatives

  • The idea that power is divided by the Constitution between the federal (central or national) govt and the state govts.
separation of powers
Separation of Powers
  • The idea that the power of govt is separated into 3 branches of govt
checks balances
Checks & balances

A government structure designed to keep any one branch of the federal govt from gaining too much power.

limited government
Limited Government
  • Governments are created by the consent of the governed and that the power of government is limited by rule of law
  • Everybody has to obey the law
  • Constitutions/other laws define limits of those in power
individual rights
Individual Rights
  • Rights guaranteed to individual citizens by the Bill of Rights and other amendments to the Constitution
  • Structure of Constitution allows for adaptation based on changing public opinion & the need to protect individual rights
practice review
Practice & Review



Which title best completes the diagram above?

  • Freedom from Unreasonable


B. Freedom of Speech

  • Right to Vote

D. Right to Bear Arms

The diagram above best describes the constitutional principle of —

checks and balances

B. popular sovereignty

C. Federalism

D. republicanism

practice review1
Practice & Review



Excerpt from the Sixth

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

Which title best completes the diagram above?

  • Women’s Suffrage

B. Abolition of Slavery

  • Right to Petition

D. Freedom from Poll Taxes

The provisions made in this excerpt were intended to address which of the following grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence?

A .“For imposing taxes on us without

our consent . . .”

B. “For quartering large bodies of armed

troops among us . . .”

“For cutting off our trade with all

parts of the world . . . ”

D. “For transporting us beyond seas to

be tried for pretended offenses . . . ”

practice review2
Practice & Review



The U.S. Constitution is considered an evolving document because it

  • has roots in earlier political documents and contains processes that allow for change
  • depends on citizens who are willing to protect liberty and justice
  • establishes a political system designed to control the use as well as the misuse of power

D. creates a framework that defines the authority of the state and federal governments

Which of the following best completes the diagram above?

Examples of judicial abuse of power

B. The results of free speech and a free


C. Examples of government checks and


D. The impact of the separation of


practice review3
Practice & Review



Excerpt from Federalist No. 51

According to the excerpt above, Madison favored the basic constitutional principle of —

A. separation of powers

B. republicanism

C. federalism

D. popular sovereignty

This excerpt reflects the principle of —

A. individual rights

B. executive power

C. popular sovereignty

D. checks and balances




14 th amendment
14th Amendment

Granted citizenship & protected civil rights of recently freed slaves

  • Guaranteed = protection under law
  • States could not deny life, liberty, property w/o due process of law

26th Amendment

Gee it’s fun to be 18


“ A Splendid Little War”



USS Maine


Rough Riders



Unrestricted submarine warfare

Trench Warfare

Archduke Franz Ferdinand





george washington
George Washington
  • Leader of Continental Army during Revolution
  • President of Continental Convention
  • 1st President of the United States
thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • Wrote Declaration of Independence
  • Colonial Leader
  • 3rd President of the United States

- Louisiana Purchase

- Louis & Clark


theodore roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Rough Rider in Spanish-American War
  • Progressive
  • 26th President of the United States

- US a World Power

- focus on


“Speak softly & carry a big stick”

woodrow wilson
Woodrow Wilson
  • 28th President of the United States
  • WWI
  • Fourteen Points
  • League of Nations
susan b anthony
Susan B. Anthony
  • Reformer
  • Temperance Mvmt
  • Abolitionist
  • Women’s Suffrage!


w e b dubois
W.E.B. DuBois
  • 1st black to earn Phd from Harvard
  • Niagara Movement (demanded full political & social rights & responsibilities for black Americans
  • One of the founders of NAACP (secure blacks’ legal rights) 1909
  • Urged blacks to become politically involved (unlike Booker T’s emphasis on job skills)


clarence darrow
Clarence Darrow
  • Famous criminal lawyer
  • Defense attorney in Scopes trial1925
  • Issue about teaching evolution
  • Darrow lost the case but debate continues


william jennings bryan
William Jennings Bryan
  • 3 time Populist Party presidential candidate
  • Secretary of State
  • Prosecution lawyer in the Scopes trial
  • Argued evolution should not be taught in school


henry ford
Henry Ford
  • Leading industrialist & manufacturer of one of the 1st autos
  • Assembly-line production
  • Inexpensive Model A & Model T revolutionized transportation & industry in the USA


charles lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
  • Aviation pioneer
  • 1st non-stop, solo trans-Atlantic flight 1927
  • Symbol of American ingenuity, courage & ability


franklin delano roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • US President from 1933-1945
  • Democrat
  • Elected to 4 terms
  • Elected during Great Depression
  • New Deal
  • WWII
adolf hitler
Adolf Hitler
  • Political & military leader of Nazi Germany
  • Der Fuhrer
  • ambitious program of world domination
  • WWII
  • Holocaust – elimination of Jews


josef stalin
Josef Stalin
  • Communist leader of USSR during WWII
  • Satellite nations in Eastern Europe after WWII
  • Cold War rivalry with US
winston churchill
Winston Churchill
  • Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII
  • Major US Ally
  • “Never have so many owed so much to so few” Battle of Britain
  • Iron Curtain Speech
harry s truman
Harry S Truman
  • VP under FDR
  • Became President as a result of death of FDR
  • President at end of WWII
  • Made decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan ending WWII
  • Early Cold War
  • Berlin Airlift
  • Korean War
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Marshall Plan
martin luther king jr
Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Believed in non-violent civil disobedience
  • Led Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
  • Organized “March on Washington” – I have a dream speech `963
  • Focused on desegregating public facilities and expanding voting rights
  • Assassinated in Memphis, 1968


cesar chavez
Cesar Chavez
  • Organized United Farm Workers Union (UFW)
  • Organized nationwide grape boycott
  • Worked to improve conditions for farm workers
  • Worked to increase voter registration of Hispanics




Wars &


american revolution 1775 1783
American Revolution1775-1783
  • British Taxation w/o representation (Stamp Act (1765)
  • Quartering of Brit troops (Boston Massacre)
  • Boston Tea Party (1773)
  • Fighting @ Lexington/Concord (1775)
  • Brit surrender at Saratoga (1777) (Thanks France!)
  • Brit surrender at Yorktown (1781)
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)
the civil war 1861 1865
The Civil War1861-1865
  • North (Union) led by U.S. Grant vs. South (Confederacy) led by Robert E. Lee
  • Issue over states’ rights
  • Issue over slavery
  • Preservation of the union vs. secession
  • Abraham Lincoln is President
  • North wins – union preserved
  • Followed by Reconstruction
spanish american war 1898
Spanish-American War1898

Causes:Spanish atrocities in Cuba +

sinking of the USS Maine in

Havana + deLome letter

Effects:US becomes a world power!

US gains overseas territory


* Puerto Rico

* Panama Canal Zone

* Hawaii annexed

* Cuba becomes US protectorate

1914 1918


  • Start of War – begins in Europe 1914
  • Causes – Nationalism, Militarism, Entangling Alliances, Imperialism
  • US Entry – US enters war in 1917 over Germany’s Unrestricted Submarine Warfare; Zimmermann Telegram
  • US entry breaks deadlock – Germany surrenders 1918
  • Wilson issues - “Fourteen Points”
  • Treaty of Versailles – formally ends WWI (some say leads to WWII)
wwii 1939 1941 1945
  • Rise of Totalitarian Govts in Europe Hitler in Germany; Military in Japan
  • Outbreak of war in EuropeGermany invades Poland in 1939
  • US attempts at neutrality fail
  • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 12/7/41. US declares war against Japan; Germany & Italy declare war against the US
wwii the homefront
WWII The Homefront
  • Women to the factories
  • End of Depression
  • Rationing
  • Japanese to internment camps
  • GI Bill
wwii the war effort
WWIIThe War Effort
  • War fought on multiple fronts: Europe/North Africa & Pacific (ETO & PTO)
  • Battle of Midway: US defeats Japanese Navy. Major turning point (1942)
  • Allied forces invade Normandy, France: Germany in 2-front war; relieves pressure on USSR; Allies move on to Germany (6/6/44)
  • Atomic Bomb: US drops on 2 Japanese cities (Hiroshima, Nagasaki) – ends war
the cold war 1945 1990
The Cold War1945-1990
  • Ideological Differences: The USSR was Communist, while the US was a democracy w/ free enterprise. Americans feared Communists were trying to spread their system to dominate the world
  • Soviet Occupation of Eastern Europe: Soviet army occupied Eastern Europe at the end of WWII and put in satellite Communist govts. Stalin broke his promise to allow free elections
  • Iron Curtain:USSR shut off Eastern Europe from Western Europe
  • US Response: Containment Policy : keep communism from spreading!!!
cold war in europe
Cold Warin Europe
  • Truman Doctrine (1947) Truman promised military & economic aid to Greece & Turkey to “contain” Communism
  • Marshall Plan (1948) US gave economic aid to rebuild war-torn Europe – to better resist Communism
  • Creation of NATOMutual Defense Alliance US, Canada, & Western Europe – members pledged a common defense against aggression; extended US nuclear shield to Europe
other important cold war details
Other important Cold War details
  • McCarthyism: US Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed Communists had entered the US govt State Dept. in the 1950s. Fear of Communism & false charges against other Americans appeared “witch hunts”
  • Sputnik I: 1957 – 1st satellite sent into space -by the USSR. Led to “space race” btwn US & USSR, creation of NASA, increased emphasis on math and science in US schools
korean war 1950 1953
Korean War1950-1953
  • Cause: Communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950
  • Highlights: US/UN forces came to assist South Korea. China entered war on North Korea’s side. War ended in stalemate, as borders remained the same as before the war
  • Impact: Increased intensity of the Cold War; Showed civilian control of the military; occurred at time of McCarthyism
cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • October 1962
  • USSR attempted to place nuclear missiles w/in Cuba
  • US blockades island of Cuba to prevent further Soviet shipment
  • USSR removes missiles from Cuba; US promises not to invade Cuba
  • Thought to be the closest the US/USSR came to an actual nuclear war
vietnam war 1946 1973
Vietnam War1946-1973
  • Cause. Vietcong & Communist N. Vietnam attacked S. Vietnam. US intervened to stop fall of “row of dominoes” to Communism
  • Highlights.Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964); Tet Offensive (1968); Strong anti-war movement in US
  • Impact. Large # of US casualties; led to distrust of American leaders; War Powers Act (1973)



Industrial Revolution:1800s: use of machinery, factories, steam power TRAINS

Impact: mass produced goods at low prices, improved standard of living, increased people’s life expectancy

Modern Age: telephone, electricity, autos, jets, medicines, computer

Impact: further improved standards of living, world became “global village”, greater use of transportation & communication, world trade increased sharply

jonas salk polio vaccine
Jonas Salk: Polio vaccine

Results of

the Vaccine!

Jonas Salk

Getting Vaccinated




magna carta 1215
Magna Carta (1215)
  • Limits to the power of the King
  • Limited power to tax
  • Right to a fair trial
english bill of rights 1689
English Bill of Rights (1689)
  • Guaranteed English citizens certain rights (freedom of speech; trial by jury)
  • Set procedure for electing representatives to Parliament
growth of representative institutions in the us
Growth of Representative Institutions in the US
  • Virginia House of Burgesses:1st representative govt assembly in colonies (1619)
  • Mayflower Compact:outlined principles of self-govt for colonists (1620)
  • Fundamental Orders of CT:1st written constitution in the colonies (1639)
foundations of government
Foundations of Government
  • Declaration of Independence (1776) unalienable rights; govts have power thru consent of the governed
  • Articles of Confederation (1781) weak central govt; loose confederation of 13 states; no power to tax; no nat’l court
  • Constitution (1787) written plan of govt; established a representative democracy
  • Bill of Rights (1791) 1st 10 amendments to Constitution; protects individual rights
  • Federalist Papers essays written to support ratification




treatment of minorities
Treatment of Minorities
  • African Americans:Loss of voting rights in the South due to poll taxes, literacy tests, & grandfather clauses. JIM CROW LAWS
  • Native Americans: Pushed westward, and confined to reservations. DAWES ACT (1887)
  • Asian Americans: Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Mexican Americans: Loss of land in former Mexican territories
milestones in the civil rights movement
Milestones in the Civil Rights Movement
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954) ends segregation in public schools (overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)ended segregation on Montgomery, AL busses

Brown v. Board/Little Rock Nine

  • Crisis in Little Rock (1957)

Sit-ins & Freedom Rides (1960s)protested segregation

civil rights legislation
CivilRights Legislation
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964: Prohibited segregation in interstate commerce
  • 24th Amendment: ended poll taxes
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965: federal officials could register voters if states blocked registration
  • Affirmative Action: preference in hiring to minorities
what are primary sources
What are Primary Sources?
  • Primary Sources are actual records that have survived from the past – letters, artifacts, maps, diary, photographs, articles of clothing.


what are secondary sources
What are Secondary Sources?
  • Secondary Sources are accounts of the past created by people writing about events sometime after they happened – textbooks, encyclopedia, secondhand descriptions or analyses
states rights
States’ Rights
  • Based on 10th Amendment
  • Idea that states had right to control all issues/laws in their state not specifically given to the fed. govt by the Constitution
  • Used by southern states to argue that they had the right to nullify (ignore) fed laws they didn’t agree with
  • Leading cause of Civil War
nullification crisis 1832
Nullification Crisis 1832
  • Congress passes tariff
  • South Carolina used states’ rights doctrine to nullify (ignore) tariff laws, threatened to secede
  • Argued that since states had created the federal union, they had the right to declare a federal law null
  • Pres. Andrew Jackson threatens to send troops to enforce tariff law
  • Tariff lowered
  • SC repealed its nullification of the tariff law
market economy
Market Economy
  • People freely choose what to buy & sell according to the laws of supply & demand
  • Individuals or companies make decisions about production, price & distribution – competition
  • Capitalism – biz, industries, resources are privately owned
  • In US, govt provides some svc & imposes somegovt regulations
  • Pure capitalism: gov’t plays NO part in economy
free enterprise system
Free Enterprise System

The system in the US and other free market economies. It includes economic choice, competition, profit motive, and limited government regulation of the economy

command economy
Command Economy
  • Central Govt makes decisions about production/distribution - decides what to make, where to make it, how much to make, what price to charge, what to pay workers
  • Production doesn’t necessarily reflect consumer demand

c. Communist economy – govt owns, operates all major farms, factories, utilities, stores

d mixed economy
D. Mixed Economy
  • Combo of command & market economies
  • Socialism: state owns/operates somebasic industries while allowing pvt enterprise in other parts of economy
  • Belief that wealth should be distributed more equally – all entitled to certain goods/svcs
  • “welfare states” characterized by HIGH TAXES to pay for the many social svcs like housing, health care, child care, pensions
ways of meeting economic needs
Ways of Meeting Economic Needs
  • Subsistence Agriculture: In a traditional economy, families generally grow food for themselves
  • Cottage Industries: Production of goods by hand at home or in small shops
  • Market-oriented Agriculture: Farmers grow cash crops to sell at market for a profit
  • Commercial industries: Producers manufacture goods, usually in a factory by machine, to sell at market
standard of living
Standard of Living

Indicators determining quality of life:

  • Income (per capita GNI)
  • Infant Mortality Rate ***
  • Education (literacy rate; college etc)
  • Growth Rate (Birth rate/Death rate)
  • Life Expectancy
  • $ spent on food
  • Communication/Transportation
developing nations vs developed nations
High birthrate

High infant mortality rate

Growing population

Low per capita GDP/GNP/GNI

Low literacy rate

Low Life Expect.

Low birthrate

Low infant mortality rate

Stable population growth

High per capita GDP/GNP/GNI

High literacy rate

High Life Expect.

Developing Nationsvs.Developed Nations

Trade Balance

  • Trade Deficit occurs when a country imports more than it exports

- domestic biz lose profits, fail

- unemployment rises

- national debt increases

  • Favorable balance of trade occurs when a country exports more than it imports – or 50/50
spacial or cultural diffusion

Know This!!!!

Spacial or Cultural Diffusion
  • Spread or movement of ideas, products, culture, disease


In US History!

Gilded Age (1876 – 1900)
  • Progressive Era (1900-1919)
  • Roaring 20s (1920s)
  • Great Depression (1930s)
  • World War II – Cold War (1940s-50s)
  • Civil Rights (1960s)

Gilded Age

Shining surface of prosperity, but inequality and corruption lay beneath

  • Westward Expansion
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Immigration
  • Robber Barons
  • Rise of labor unions
  • Machine Politics
  • Imperialism


homestead act 1862
Homestead Act (1862)
  • Gilded Age (Westward Expansion)
  • Offered 160 acres of land with few conditions (pay filing fee, make improvements, live on it for 5 yrs)
  • Led to explosion of settlement in the West
dawes act 1887
Dawes Act (1887)
  • Gilded Age (Westward Expansion)
  • Attempt to assimilate or “Americanize” Indians into white culture
  • Broke up reservations into farm plots

- destruction of their culture by breaking up tribal ties

- Most Indians had no farm skills (nomadic, buffalo hunters)

us expansion imperialism
US Expansion & Imperialism
  • Gilded Age (Imperialism)
  • US becomes World Power after Sp-Am war
  • Built Panama Canal: shortened distance (cheaper too) btwn Atlantic & Pacific benefiting US military and US industry
  • Open Door Policy with China: all nations have right to trade with China
building the canal in the jungles of panama
Building the Canal in the Jungles of Panama

Fumigating to eradicate Malaria and mosquitos

progressive era
Progressive Era
  • Reform (child labor, immigrants, against machine politics)
  • Muckrakers (writers etc who exposed social ills)
  • Fightin’ Bob LaFollette(direct primary, referendum, recall, initiative)
  • Amendments (16-19)
  • Imperialism(US becomes World Power)
  • World War I (ends Progressive Era)
nat l park service 1916
Nat’l Park Service (1916)
  • Progressive Era
  • Teddy Roosevelt & Conservation
  • Began conservation awareness
  • Set up and service nat’l parks
progressive era presidents
Progressive Era Presidents?
  • Teddy Roosevelt (Panama Canal, Conservation)

2) William Taft

3) Woodrow Wilson (WWI)

roaring 20s
Roaring 20s
  • Prosperity
  • Isolationism
  • Prohibition
  • Jazz music
  • Harlem Renaissance
  • Flapper (revolution in manners & morals)
  • Red Scare - fear if communism in US
  • 18th amendment
  • Result of the Temperance Movement
  • Ban on manufacture, sale, consumption of alcohol
  • Led to Rise of organized crime (bootlegging etc)
  • 21st amendment repeals prohibition
role of labor unions
Role of Labor Unions
  • Result of rise of big biz
  • Bargained for better pay, better working conditions, better working hours
  • Sometimes led to strikes, violence
  • Sometimes led to concessions by factory owners
great depression
Great Depression
  • Stock market crash 10/29/1929
  • Unemployment, homelessnes
  • FDR
  • New Deal
what was the new deal
What was the New Deal?
  • FDR’s program for helping US recover from Great Depression (expanded role of gov’t in the economy)
  • Various programs to provide jobs for people (CCC, WPA), regulation of banks, and other gov’t regulatory agencies
  • New Deal Programs still around?

1) Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) – insures bank savings deposits

2) Social Security Act – provides retirement pensions, unemployment insurance, disability insurance

  • Lasting Impact? Expand size & scope of gov’t
world war ii cold war
World War II – Cold War
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Atomic bombs on Japan
  • 1950s prosperity + movement to the suburbs + population
  • Growth in Education ala GI Bill
  • Rivalry between US – USSR
  • Escalate to Korean War, Vietnam, Cuban Missile Crisis
the suburbs
The Suburbs

Levittown – a new concept - self-contained community with its own pools, parks, elementary school, and shopping center.

  • Population Growth
  • Construction Growth
  • Move to the suburbs
  • New interstate highway system got you there
gi bill
GI Bill
  • Provided $ for veterans of WWII to go to college
  • Low interest loans for veterans
cold war truman doctrine
Cold War Truman Doctrine
  • 1947
  • Pledge to help nations who are resisting communist threats from abroad or from within
  • Contain communism through military aid
cold war marhsall plan
Cold WarMarhsall Plan
  • European Recovery Program
  • Plan to give economic aid to European countries to rebuild their economies after WWII
  • “When the economy looks good, communism looks bad!”
cold war nato
Cold War NATO
  • 1949
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Mutual Defense Alliance
  • Btwn US and other countries of W. Europe who pledged to help each other in case of attack
  • Still operational today
cold war mccarthyism
Cold WarMcCarthyism
  • Post-WWII fear of communists
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy accused many in gov’t and Hollywood of being communists
  • Little efforts to support claims
  • “witch hunt” scenario
cold war arms control
Cold WarArms Control
  • SALT I and II: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
  • Btwn US and USSR
  • An effort to put caps on each sides number of nuclear weapons

President Gerald Ford USA

Pres. Leonid Brezhnev


civil rights
Civil Rights
  • More Vietnam
  • JFK Assassinated
  • LBJ’s Great Society
  • MLK Jr.
  • End of Segregation
  • Improved equality for women & minorities
brown v board of education
Brown v. Board of Education
  • 1954. Landmark supreme court case
  • Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 (separate but = facilities ok)
  • Ends segregation of public schools
civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Banned racial discrimination in all public facilities and as a consideration for employment



voting rights act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Banned use of restrictive practices to prevent people, particularly minorities, from registering and voting
president l b johnson s great society
President L.B. Johnson’s Great Society
  • Civil Rights legislation
  • Education programs
  • Medical programs: Medicare, Medicaid
  • Like the New Deal, expanded size and scope of gov’t
in us history



In US History

un united nations
UN = United Nations
  • Established 1945
  • Goal to maintain world peace
  • 192 members
  • Members pledge to work together to solve disputes
  • oversees many agencies that promote health, welfare, and cooperation around the world
united nations
United Nations

UN Security Council

UN General Assembly

UN Headquarters:

New York City

nato north atlantic treaty organization
NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Established 1949 to protect member nations from Communist threats
  • Now has 28 member nations
  • US belongs to this! (sorry George Washington!)
  • Goal: safeguard the freedom & security of members through political & military means (Translation? It is a mutual defense alliance!!!)
  • USSR formed Warsaw Pact in response
the cold war military alliances
The Cold War Military Alliances

= NATO Countries

= Warsaw Pact Countries

current nato members
Current NATO members

** The Warsaw Pact is dissolved

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Formed in response to USSR’s launch of Sputnik in 1957
  • Goal to coordinate research in rocket science and space exploration
  • North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Countries: Canada, USA, Mexico
  • Free trade zone (eliminate tariffs, quotas etc)
  • Export sales for C, US, M up
  • Some manufacturing jobs in US lost to cheaper labor in Mexico
  • Increased trade across US/Mex border
  • European Union
  • Created to promote economic and political cooperation among many European nations
  • Forms a regional trade bloc that competes with NAFTA
  • 27 members
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • Created in 1924 after the Russian Revolution that overthrew the czarist monarchy.
  • Cold War enemy of US
  • Consisted of Russia and 14 of its neighboring countries
  • 1991 – communism failed and many of the internal republics became independent states