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TAKS Objective 1
Objective 1: The Student will demonstrate an Understanding of Nature The Student will: • conduct field and laboratory activities using safe environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. • use scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. • use critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed discussion.
Conduct field and laboratory activities using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. Field activities are different from activities conducted in the lab. Field activities include situations where students collect data outside of a formal laboratory situation. They should include field trips in and around the campus and should closely simulate real time situations. Field work is no different than lab work in that certain safety and ethical practices must be applied. The students must understand that there are certain rules that must be applied in both cases.
A. Demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations. • 1. If a glass beaker was accidentally broken into several sharp pieces, all of the following procedures should be followed Except: • *a). pick up the glass pieces and place them in the trash can • b). immediately notify the teacher of the accident • c). use a special brush and scoop to sweep up the pieces • d). place the glass in a special receptacle for broken glass only • 2. When working with hot materials in the laboratory, all the following procedures are correct Except: • a). wearing protective eye cover • *b). look directly into a test tube containing boiling material • c). wear protective gloves • d). hold the test tube with a test tube holder. • 3. In order to extract DNA from a cell ethyl alcohol must be used. When using toxic chemicals such as ethyl alcohol, all the following procedures are correct Except: • a). always use the fume hood when working with toxic chemicals • b). protective gloves and eye ware should be worn when toxic chemical are used • *c). If any chemical is left over dispose of it in the sink • d). keep the toxic material away from any fire source
4. When working with blood and other organic materials all of the following procedures must be taken EXCEPT • a). wear protective gloves • b). use protective eye covers • c). wear a lab coat • *d). leave your used instruments on the lab table • 5. Not all bacteria are harmful, but it always important to take special precautions when working with any type of microorganism in the laboratory. All of the following lab procedures are correct in handling microorganisms Except: • a). Wash your hand before and after working with microorganisms. • b). Always use sterile instruments during the procedures. • c). Dispose of all contaminated material is a biohazard container • *d). It is important to carry on conversations with your partners while carrying out the lab procedures. • 6. When conducting an ecological experiment in a wooded area, • all of the following procedures must be carried out at some point during the research Except: • a). Wear protective clothing • *b). Report any injury to your teacher before leaving for the evening. • c). Check periodically for ticks or other parasites. • d). Make sure all the equipment is accounted for and cleaned.
Use scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The scientific method is a series of steps used to help solve a problem. The method is a logical approach to help determine if the data collected is sufficient to answer the question. Steps of the Scientific Method Define the problem Research the problem Develop a hypothesis Develop an appropriate controlled experiment Collect and analyze the data Form a conclusion
A. Plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions,formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology • 1. All of the following procedures are correct in the development of a hypothesis Except • a). the problem must be stated clearly • *b). the variables being tested must be divided into several groups • c). the problem must be researched • d). a working knowledge of the problem must be developed • 2. To properly prepare a slide of a human cheek cell all the following equipment is needed Except • a). a sterile probe • b). slide and cover slip • c). a chemical stain • *d). a scalpel
3. Based on the above data, which of the following hypotheses could be correct? a). Tadpoles enjoy a slightly basic environment. b). Frogs cannot reproduce well in an acidic environment. *c). Tadpoles prefer a slightly acidic environment. d). The larger the number of tadpoles the higher the pH of the environment.
B. Collect data and make measurements with precision What is the Metric System? • Measurement system based on the number 10 • The main categories are Meter, Liter, and Gram
Meter • Meter measure distance. • The English system measures distance in inches, feet, yards, and miles. • Liter • Liter measures volume. • The English System measures volume in ounces, pints, quarts, and gallons. • Gram • Gram is a measurement of mass. • The English System measures mass in ounces, pounds, and tons. • How the Values Change • Prefixes are added to the measurement value to increase or decrease its value. • Kilo increases the value by 1000. • Hecto increases the value by 100. • Deca increases the value by 10. • deci decreases the value by 10. (0.1) • centi decreases the value by 100. (0.01) • milli decreases the value by 1000. (0.001)
How Do We Change the Values? If one wants to change a large value to a lower value move the decimal point to the right. Example: Change 23 Kilograms to grams. 23 kilograms ---------------> 23,000 grams 23,000 3 decimal points ---------->
If one wants to change a small value to a larger value move the decimal point to the left. 234 milligrams to grams. 234 milligrams ---------------> 0.23 grams 0.23 <----------- 3 decimal points
1. If a precise measurement of 0.3 mL were needed, which of the above pieces of equipment would best apply? • a). A • b). B • c). C • *d). D
2. What is the mean length of the three shells? • a). 2.1 mm. • *b). 2.5 mm. • c). 0.3 mm. • d). 1.9 mm
Laboratory Apparatus • 1. Glass slide • 2. Concave slide • 3. Cover slip • 4. Petri dish • 5 and 6 Flasks • 7. Funnel • 8. Graduated cylinder • 9. Beaker • 10. Test tube • 11. Test tube rack • 12. Test tube holder • 13. Pipette • 14. Striker • 15. Probe • 16. Scalpel • 17. Dropper • 18. Inoculation loop • 19. Forceps.
C. Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data • 1. Based on the data which of the following trends is most evident? • a). The weight of cell 1 increases in relation to its external salt concentration. • *b). The weight of cell 2 consistently decreases in relation to its external salt content • c). Cell 2 weighs less than cell 1 at 6 mg/L of salt. • d). Cell 2 prefers a salt water environment.
2. What inference can be made concerning the graphed data? • a). Patient A has diabetes • b). Patient B can control his glucose level. • *c). Patient A does not need to inject insulin to bring his glucose level back to normal • d). Patient B does not have diabetes.
D. Communicate valid conclusions • 1. Man and the hawk are considered top carnivores in this ecosystem. What is the best evidence supporting this conclusion? • *a). The arrows are pointing toward them and none are pointing away from them. • b). They are warm blooded • c). They are large animals • d). They are meat eaters.
2. Which of the following sample plants had the largest increase in their average height? • a). Q • b). R • *c). S • d). T • 3. Which of the following statements best explains the reason for the accelerated growth of sample S? • *a). The increase in photosynthesis was larger than the increase in the respiratory rate. • b). The increase in the respiratory rate was larger than the increase in its photosynthetic rate. • c). Both rates were equal in activity. • d). This group received more nutrients than the others.
4. Muscle tissue is contractile tissue. Their form is directly related to their function. Of the three types of muscle tissue, which one is responsible for the complete digestion of food? • *a). 1 • b). 2 • c). 3 • 5. Muscle 2 and muscle 3 have a similar appearance, yet they carry on totally different functions. All of the following are true concerning these two muscles EXCEPT • a). they are both striated • b). they are under the control of different parts of the brain. • c). Muscle 2 is found only in the heart. • *d). Both muscles are voluntary.
The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions Critical thinking skills are developed over a long period of time. Students must be given the opportunity to develop these skills. The best way to develop these skills is to allow the students to gradually take control of the investigative process in the class. They must use the scientific method to plan, investigate, and analyze the data collected. Open ended questions requiring critical thinking will allow the student to explore their answers in a way That is non threatening.
A. Analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations • 1. Many of the animals can be classified into one of three body types based on the development of the three layers of tissues they posses. What evidence best supports body style 1? • *a). The planarian is an acoelomate, lacking a body cavity. • b). The starfish has its body cavity completely lined with mesoderm. • c). The pinworm does not have its body cavity completely lined with mesoderm. • d). The human is a coelomate. • 2. What evidence support the idea that organism 1 cannot move its digestive tract independently of its body wall? • a). It is not in contact with the mesoderm • b). There is too much ectoderm • c). The intestinal cavity is part of the endoderm. • *d). There is no coelom
3. Based on this model of the earth’s development, what is the age of the earth? • a). 2500 million years • b). 1.5 billion years • c). 3500 million years • *d). 4.5 billion years • 4. Evidence of the development of animal life is indicated by • a). the appearance of anaerobic bacteria • *b). the appearance of the first multicellular organisms • c). the appearance of the first heterotrophs • d). the development of photosynthesis
B. Evaluate promotional claims that relate to biological issues • Microbiologists frequently culture bacteria from a person ill with an infection to determine which antibiotic will be most effective in combating the bacteria. 5 antibiotic discs and one control disc were placed on the surface of a sterile agar plate containing the bacteria in question. The plate is shown below after 48 hours of incubation. Examine the key and the diagram before answering the questions below. • 1. Many bacteria have developed a resistance to certain antibiotics over a period of years. All of the following antibiotics have some effect on bacterial growth EXCEPT • a). 1, 3, and 4 • *b). 2 and 5 • c). 2 and 3 • d). 3 and 4
2. Many individuals self medicate themselves before going to a doctor for their illness. Many times this self-medication is the left over antibiotics from a previous illness. Research has shown that all of the following impacts of this practice are true EXCEPT: • *a). This is a good practice since it will save money. • b). Bacteria contain plasmids, which can mutate and make the bacteria • resistant to the drug. • c). Antibiotics lose their potency as they age, losing their effectiveness • in killing bacteria. • d). The body builds up a tolerance to antibiotics over time.
TAKS Objective 2
Objective 2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. Students will: • Investigate and identify cellular processes • Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) • Explain replication, transcription, and translation • Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations • Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals • Identify characteristics of kingdoms • Interpret the functions of systems in organisms • Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole
1. Investigate and Identify Cellular Processes • Osmosis • Enzyme Action • Cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) • Photosynthesis
Osmosis • Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a biological membrane. • Water will move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. • The solute(dissolved materials) does not move across the membrane. • Picture 1. The cell is hypotonic to the environment. • Picture 2. The cell is hypertonic to the environment.
Enzyme Action • Enzymes are chemicals that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction. • In living organisms enzymes are proteins. • The enzyme contains a hole called the active site. • This site will allow the substance it will work on to exactly fit. • The structure the enzyme works on is called the substrate. • The enzyme lowers the activation energy (energy needed to start the reaction). This will allow the substrate to be split into its parts.
Cellular Respiration • Cellular respiration is a process by which energy is released from organic materials. • It may occur with (aerobic) or without (anaerobic) oxygen. • The chemical formula for aerobic respiration is: • C6H12O6 + 6O2 --------- 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy • The process is divided into three parts: Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the Electron Transport System (ETS). • Energy is stored in the form of high energy molecules called ATP • Most of cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrion of the cell. • Glycolysis is anaerobic, and along with fermentation occur in the cell’s cytoplasm.
Photosynthesis • Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions storing the sun’s energy in organic compounds like sugar. • Photosynthesis occurs in autotrophic organisms (plants, protists, and some bacteria). • It requires a green pigment called chlorophyll. • The suns energy is usually stored in a six carbon compound called glucose. • Oxygen is a by product of the reaction. • The formula is: • Chlorophyll 6CO2 + 6H2O ------C6H12O6 + 6O2 Sunlight
2. Describe the Components of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) • Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids. • Nucleotides contain: a sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), phosphate, and one of 5 bases. • The bases are A (adenine), T (Thymine), C (Cytosine), and G (Guanine) which are found in DNA. RNA contains A, G, C, and U (Uracil), which replaces Thymine. • The bases combine in a specific manner: A combines with T or U, and C with G.
3. Explain replication, transcription, and translation Replication: The process by which a molecule of DNA will make an exact copy of itself. Steps: The DNA will unwind and unzip splitting apart Each exposed side of the DNA will pick up their complementary bases. Each DNA will rewind.
Transcription • Transcription is the process by which the DNA will produce a m-RNA molecule. • This occurs inside the nucleus of the cell. • The m-RNA contains the code for a protein that will be produced on the cell’s ribosome. • Example: • DNA bases: ATGGGCTAG • m-RNA: UACCCGAUC • Notice the U replaces the T when RNA is produced. • The m-RNA is subdivided into units of 3 bases called codons. • Each codon codes for 1 amino acid. • UAC CCG AUC = 3 codons.
Translation • Translation is the process by which the cell will produce a protein from the m-RNA code produced by the DNA. • The m-RNA will attach itself to the ribosome. • Special RNA molecules called t-RNA (transfer) will bring the correct amino acid to the ribosome. • This t-RNA will complement the codon on the ribosome. • The next slide shows the completed processes of transcription and translation.
Codon Chart • The codon chart is used to translate the code found in each codon. • Let’s use AUG as an example. • A is the first base. It is located at the top of the column on the left. • U is the second base. It is located under the 3rd column from the left. • Locate the box where A and U intersect. • G is the third base. The answer Methionine.
4. Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations • Point mutation: Changing a base ATCGGG • ATGGGG • Insertion: Adding a base AAGGTC • AAGGGTC • Deletion: Removing a base AAGGCG • AAGCG • Inversion: Flipping a section of DNA AGCTTA • ATCGTA
5. Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals Genetic problems are worked out using a structure called the Punnett Square. The square is used to determine the chances an offspring will receive a particular trait. • Example: B = Brown hair, b= blonde hair • Parents: Bb x Bb This is considered a monohybrid cross, since it deals with one trait.
Karyotypes • A karyotype is a spread of an organisms chromosomes. • All the homologous chromosomes are paired. • The paired chromosomes are then placed in descending order from the largest to smallest. • Chromosomes come in pairs. • If there are any abnormalities in this a serious condition may develop. • Examine the karyotype below and determine if there is an abnormality. • There is an abnormality. There are too many X chromosomes. This person has Kleinfelter's Syndrome.
Pedigree • A pedigree is a family tree showing the inheritance of a particular trait. • The symbols are easy to follow. Squares represent males and circles represent females. • A horizontal line connecting a male and female represents the marriage line. The colored shape represents a recessive phenotype (bb). • The vertical line connects the offspring to the parents.
6.Identify the Characteristics of the 6 Kingdoms • Eubacteria and Archaebacteria: single celled, cell wall, no nucleus (prokaryotic), mostly heterotrophic (cannot make their own food), some autotrophic (can make their own food). • Protista: single celled, no cell wall, eukaryotic, flagella, cilia, • Fungi: cell wall, eukaryotic (contains a nucleus), heterotrophic, no cilia or flagella. • Animal: multicelled, heterotrophic, no cell wall. • Plant: multicelled, autotrophic, cell wall.
Circulatory: Transports materials throughout the organism. Digestive: Digests and absorbs food. Respiratory: Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the environment. Excretory: Rids the body of metabolic wastes and maintains the organism’s water balance. Endocrine: Controls the chemical process of the organism. Reproductive: Propagates the species Skeletal: Supports and gives form to the organism Muscle: Produces movement and helps maintain body temperature Integumentary: Protection and regulation. Nervous: Controls and coordinates the organism. Senses and reacts to the environment. Immune: Protects the organism from foreign invaders. 7. Interpret the functions of systems in organisms
8. Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole • Circulatory system carries oxygen, food, wastes, and hormones, to and from the organism’s cells. The circulatory system is central, acting as the passage way for the others to use. • The digestive system breaks down complex foods for all cells. (C, M, N, E, & R) • Respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood. (N, M, S, C, & E) • The Excretory system maintains water balance within the body and removes its cellular wastes. • The skin protects the body from pathogens and water loss. It also helps regulate the body’s temperature. • The Immune system protects the body from foreign invaders (antigens). • The Muscular system allows the movement of the body and materials within it. It also helps in regulating the body’s temperature. • The Skeletal system forms the body’s foundation and serves as an attachment point for its muscles. • The Nervous system coordinates the body’s systems by sending and receiving messages.
TAKS Objective 3