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TAKS. Objective 1. Objective 1: The Student will demonstrate an Understanding of Nature. The Student will: conduct field and laboratory activities using safe environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. use scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations.

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TAKS

Objective 1


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Objective 1: The Student will demonstrate an Understanding of Nature

The Student will:

  • conduct field and laboratory activities using safe environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices.

  • use scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations.

  • use critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed discussion.


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Conduct field and laboratory activities using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices.

Field activities are different from activities conducted in the lab.

Field activities include situations where students collect data

outside of a formal laboratory situation. They should include field trips

in and around the campus and should closely simulate real time situations.

Field work is no different than lab work in that certain safety and ethical

practices must be applied. The students must understand that there are

certain rules that must be applied in both cases.


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A. Demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations.

  • 1. If a glass beaker was accidentally broken into several sharp pieces, all of the following procedures should be followed Except:

  • *a). pick up the glass pieces and place them in the trash can

  • b). immediately notify the teacher of the accident

  • c). use a special brush and scoop to sweep up the pieces

  • d). place the glass in a special receptacle for broken glass only

  • 2. When working with hot materials in the laboratory, all the following procedures are correct Except:

  • a). wearing protective eye cover

  • *b). look directly into a test tube containing boiling material

  • c). wear protective gloves

  • d). hold the test tube with a test tube holder.

  • 3. In order to extract DNA from a cell ethyl alcohol must be used. When using toxic chemicals such as ethyl alcohol, all the following procedures are correct Except:

  • a). always use the fume hood when working with toxic chemicals

  • b). protective gloves and eye ware should be worn when toxic chemical are used

  • *c). If any chemical is left over dispose of it in the sink

  • d). keep the toxic material away from any fire source


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  • 4. investigations.When working with blood and other organic materials all of the following procedures must be taken EXCEPT

  • a). wear protective gloves

  • b). use protective eye covers

  • c). wear a lab coat

  • *d). leave your used instruments on the lab table

  • 5. Not all bacteria are harmful, but it always important to take special precautions when working with any type of microorganism in the laboratory. All of the following lab procedures are correct in handling microorganisms Except:

  • a). Wash your hand before and after working with microorganisms.

  • b). Always use sterile instruments during the procedures.

  • c). Dispose of all contaminated material is a biohazard container

  • *d). It is important to carry on conversations with your partners while carrying out the lab procedures.

  • 6. When conducting an ecological experiment in a wooded area,

  • all of the following procedures must be carried out at some point during the research Except:

  • a). Wear protective clothing

  • *b). Report any injury to your teacher before leaving for the evening.

  • c). Check periodically for ticks or other parasites.

  • d). Make sure all the equipment is accounted for and cleaned.


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Use scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations.

The scientific method is a series of steps used to help solve a problem.

The method is a logical approach to help determine if the data collected

is sufficient to answer the question.

Steps of the Scientific Method

Define the problem

Research the problem

Develop a hypothesis

Develop an appropriate controlled experiment

Collect and analyze the data

Form a conclusion


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A. Plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions,formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology

  • 1. All of the following procedures are correct in the development of a hypothesis Except

  • a). the problem must be stated clearly

  • *b). the variables being tested must be divided into several groups

  • c). the problem must be researched

  • d). a working knowledge of the problem must be developed

  • 2. To properly prepare a slide of a human cheek cell all the following equipment is needed Except

  • a). a sterile probe

  • b). slide and cover slip

  • c). a chemical stain

  • *d). a scalpel


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3. Based on the above data, which of the following hypotheses could be correct?

a). Tadpoles enjoy a slightly basic environment.

b). Frogs cannot reproduce well in an acidic environment.

*c). Tadpoles prefer a slightly acidic environment.

d). The larger the number of tadpoles the higher the pH of the environment.


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B. Collect data and make measurements with precision hypotheses could be correct?

What is the Metric System?

  • Measurement system based on the number 10

  • The main categories are Meter, Liter, and Gram


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  • Meter hypotheses could be correct?

  • Meter measure distance.

  • The English system measures distance in inches, feet, yards, and miles.

  • Liter

  • Liter measures volume.

  • The English System measures volume in ounces, pints, quarts, and gallons.

  • Gram

  • Gram is a measurement of mass.

  • The English System measures mass in ounces, pounds, and tons.

  • How the Values Change

  • Prefixes are added to the measurement value to increase or decrease its value.

  • Kilo increases the value by 1000.

  • Hecto increases the value by 100.

  • Deca increases the value by 10.

  • deci decreases the value by 10. (0.1)

  • centi decreases the value by 100. (0.01)

  • milli decreases the value by 1000. (0.001)


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How Do We Change the Values? hypotheses could be correct?

If one wants to change a large value to a lower value move the decimal point to the right.

Example: Change 23 Kilograms to grams.

23 kilograms ---------------> 23,000 grams

23,000

3 decimal points ---------->


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If one wants to change a small value to a larger value move the

decimal point to the left.

234 milligrams to grams.

234 milligrams ---------------> 0.23 grams

0.23

<----------- 3 decimal points


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  • 1. theIf a precise measurement of 0.3 mL were needed, which of the above pieces of equipment would best apply?

  • a). A

  • b). B

  • c). C

  • *d). D


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  • 2. theWhat is the mean length of the three shells?

  • a). 2.1 mm.

  • *b). 2.5 mm.

  • c). 0.3 mm.

  • d). 1.9 mm


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Laboratory Apparatus the

  • 1. Glass slide

  • 2. Concave slide

  • 3. Cover slip

  • 4. Petri dish

  • 5 and 6 Flasks

  • 7. Funnel

  • 8. Graduated cylinder

  • 9. Beaker

  • 10. Test tube

  • 11. Test tube rack

  • 12. Test tube holder

  • 13. Pipette

  • 14. Striker

  • 15. Probe

  • 16. Scalpel

  • 17. Dropper

  • 18. Inoculation loop

  • 19. Forceps.


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C. Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data

  • 1. Based on the data which of the following trends is most evident?

  • a). The weight of cell 1 increases in relation to its external salt concentration.

  • *b). The weight of cell 2 consistently decreases in relation to its external salt content

  • c). Cell 2 weighs less than cell 1 at 6 mg/L of salt.

  • d). Cell 2 prefers a salt water environment.


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D. Communicate valid conclusions trends from data

  • 1. Man and the hawk are considered top carnivores in this ecosystem. What is the best evidence supporting this conclusion?

  • *a). The arrows are pointing toward them and none are pointing away from them.

  • b). They are warm blooded

  • c). They are large animals

  • d). They are meat eaters.


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  • 2. trends from dataWhich of the following sample plants had the largest increase in their average height?

  • a). Q

  • b). R

  • *c). S

  • d). T

  • 3. Which of the following statements best explains the reason for the accelerated growth of sample S?

  • *a). The increase in photosynthesis was larger than the increase in the respiratory rate.

  • b). The increase in the respiratory rate was larger than the increase in its photosynthetic rate.

  • c). Both rates were equal in activity.

  • d). This group received more nutrients than the others.


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  • 4. trends from dataMuscle tissue is contractile tissue. Their form is directly related to their function. Of the three types of muscle tissue, which one is responsible for the complete digestion of food?

  • *a). 1

  • b). 2

  • c). 3

  • 5. Muscle 2 and muscle 3 have a similar appearance, yet they carry on totally different functions. All of the following are true concerning these two muscles EXCEPT

  • a). they are both striated

  • b). they are under the control of different parts of the brain.

  • c). Muscle 2 is found only in the heart.

  • *d). Both muscles are voluntary.


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The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions

Critical thinking skills are developed over a long period of time.

Students must be given the opportunity to develop these skills.

The best way to develop these skills is to allow the students to

gradually take control of the investigative process in the class.

They must use the scientific method to plan, investigate, and

analyze the data collected. Open ended questions requiring critical

thinking will allow the student to explore their answers in a way

That is non threatening.


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A. Analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations solving to make informed decisions

  • 1. Many of the animals can be classified into one of three body types based on the development of the three layers of tissues they posses. What evidence best supports body style 1?

  • *a). The planarian is an acoelomate, lacking a body cavity.

  • b). The starfish has its body cavity completely lined with mesoderm.

  • c). The pinworm does not have its body cavity completely lined with mesoderm.

  • d). The human is a coelomate.

  • 2. What evidence support the idea that organism 1 cannot move its digestive tract independently of its body wall?

  • a). It is not in contact with the mesoderm

  • b). There is too much ectoderm

  • c). The intestinal cavity is part of the endoderm.

  • *d). There is no coelom


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  • 3. solving to make informed decisionsBased on this model of the earth’s development, what is the age of the earth?

  • a). 2500 million years

  • b). 1.5 billion years

  • c). 3500 million years

  • *d). 4.5 billion years

  • 4. Evidence of the development of animal life is indicated by

  • a). the appearance of anaerobic bacteria

  • *b). the appearance of the first multicellular organisms

  • c). the appearance of the first heterotrophs

  • d). the development of photosynthesis


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B. Evaluate promotional claims that relate to biological issues

  • Microbiologists frequently culture bacteria from a person ill with an infection to determine which antibiotic will be most effective in combating the bacteria. 5 antibiotic discs and one control disc were placed on the surface of a sterile agar plate containing the bacteria in question. The plate is shown below after 48 hours of incubation. Examine the key and the diagram before answering the questions below.

    • 1. Many bacteria have developed a resistance to certain antibiotics over a period of years. All of the following antibiotics have some effect on bacterial growth EXCEPT

    • a). 1, 3, and 4

    • *b). 2 and 5

    • c). 2 and 3

    • d). 3 and 4


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  • 2. Many individuals self medicate themselves before going to a doctor for their illness. Many times this self-medication is the left over antibiotics from a previous illness. Research has shown that all of the following impacts of this practice are true EXCEPT:

  • *a). This is a good practice since it will save money.

  • b). Bacteria contain plasmids, which can mutate and make the bacteria

  • resistant to the drug.

  • c). Antibiotics lose their potency as they age, losing their effectiveness

  • in killing bacteria.

  • d). The body builds up a tolerance to antibiotics over time.


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TAKS a doctor for their illness. Many times this self-medication is the left over antibiotics from a previous illness. Research has shown that all of the following impacts of this practice are true

Objective 2


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Objective 2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems.

Students will:

  • Investigate and identify cellular processes

  • Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

  • Explain replication, transcription, and translation

  • Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations

  • Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals

  • Identify characteristics of kingdoms

  • Interpret the functions of systems in organisms

  • Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole


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1. of the organization of living systems.Investigate and Identify Cellular Processes

  • Osmosis

  • Enzyme Action

  • Cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic)

  • Photosynthesis


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Osmosis of the organization of living systems.

  • Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a biological membrane.

  • Water will move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.

  • The solute(dissolved materials) does not move across the membrane.

  • Picture 1. The cell is hypotonic to the environment.

  • Picture 2. The cell is hypertonic to the environment.


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Enzyme Action of the organization of living systems.

  • Enzymes are chemicals that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction.

  • In living organisms enzymes are proteins.

  • The enzyme contains a hole called the active site.

  • This site will allow the substance it will work on to exactly fit.

  • The structure the enzyme works on is called the substrate.

  • The enzyme lowers the activation energy (energy needed to start

    the reaction). This will allow the substrate to be split into its parts.


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Cellular Respiration of the organization of living systems.

  • Cellular respiration is a process by which energy is released from

    organic materials.

  • It may occur with (aerobic) or without (anaerobic) oxygen.

  • The chemical formula for aerobic respiration is:

  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 --------- 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

  • The process is divided into three parts: Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and

    the Electron Transport System (ETS).

  • Energy is stored in the form of high energy molecules called ATP

  • Most of cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrion of the cell.

  • Glycolysis is anaerobic, and along with fermentation occur in

    the cell’s cytoplasm.


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Photosynthesis of the organization of living systems.

  • Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions storing the sun’s energy in organic compounds like sugar.

  • Photosynthesis occurs in autotrophic organisms (plants, protists, and some bacteria).

  • It requires a green pigment called chlorophyll.

  • The suns energy is usually stored in a six carbon compound

    called glucose.

  • Oxygen is a by product of the reaction.

  • The formula is:

  • Chlorophyll

    6CO2 + 6H2O ------C6H12O6 + 6O2

    Sunlight


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2. Describe the Components of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the organization of living systems.

  • Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids.

  • Nucleotides contain: a sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), phosphate, and one of 5 bases.

  • The bases are A (adenine), T (Thymine), C (Cytosine), and G (Guanine) which are found in DNA. RNA contains A, G, C, and U (Uracil), which replaces Thymine.

  • The bases combine in a specific manner: A combines with T or U, and C with G.


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3. Explain replication, transcription, and translation of the organization of living systems.

Replication: The process by which a molecule of DNA will make

an exact copy of itself.

Steps:

The DNA will unwind and unzip splitting apart

Each exposed side of the DNA will pick up their complementary bases.

Each DNA will rewind.


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Transcription of the organization of living systems.

  • Transcription is the process by which the DNA will produce a m-RNA molecule.

  • This occurs inside the nucleus of the cell.

  • The m-RNA contains the code for a protein that will be produced on the cell’s ribosome.

  • Example:

  • DNA bases: ATGGGCTAG

  • m-RNA: UACCCGAUC

  • Notice the U replaces the T when RNA is produced.

  • The m-RNA is subdivided into units of 3 bases called codons.

  • Each codon codes for 1 amino acid.

  • UAC CCG AUC = 3 codons.


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Translation of the organization of living systems.

  • Translation is the process by which the cell will produce a protein from the m-RNA code produced by the DNA.

  • The m-RNA will attach itself to the ribosome.

  • Special RNA molecules called t-RNA (transfer) will bring the correct amino acid to the ribosome.

  • This t-RNA will complement the codon on the ribosome.

  • The next slide shows the completed processes of transcription and translation.


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Protein Synthesis of the organization of living systems.


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Codon Chart of the organization of living systems.

  • The codon chart is used to translate the code found in each codon.

  • Let’s use AUG as an example.

  • A is the first base. It is located at the top of the column on the left.

  • U is the second base. It is located under the 3rd column from the left.

  • Locate the box where A and U intersect.

  • G is the third base. The answer Methionine.


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4. Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations

  • Point mutation: Changing a base ATCGGG

  • ATGGGG

  • Insertion: Adding a base AAGGTC

  • AAGGGTC

  • Deletion: Removing a base AAGGCG

  • AAGCG

  • Inversion: Flipping a section of DNA AGCTTA

  • ATCGTA


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5. Compare genetic variations observed in plants and mutationsanimals

Genetic problems are worked out using a structure called the

Punnett Square. The square is used to determine the chances

an offspring will receive a particular trait.

  • Example: B = Brown hair, b= blonde hair

  • Parents: Bb x Bb

This is considered a monohybrid cross, since it deals with one

trait.


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Karyotypes mutations

  • A karyotype is a spread of an organisms chromosomes.

  • All the homologous chromosomes are paired.

  • The paired chromosomes are then placed in descending order from the

    largest to smallest.

  • Chromosomes come in pairs.

  • If there are any abnormalities in this a serious condition may develop.

  • Examine the karyotype below and determine if there is an abnormality.

  • There is an abnormality. There are too many X chromosomes. This

    person has Kleinfelter's Syndrome.


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Pedigree mutations

  • A pedigree is a family tree showing the inheritance of a particular trait.

  • The symbols are easy to follow. Squares represent males and circles

    represent females.

  • A horizontal line connecting a male and female represents the marriage

    line. The colored shape represents a recessive phenotype (bb).

  • The vertical line connects the offspring to the parents.


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6. mutationsIdentify the Characteristics of the 6 Kingdoms

  • Eubacteria and Archaebacteria: single celled, cell wall, no nucleus (prokaryotic), mostly heterotrophic (cannot make their own food), some autotrophic (can make their own food).

  • Protista: single celled, no cell wall, eukaryotic, flagella, cilia,

  • Fungi: cell wall, eukaryotic (contains a nucleus), heterotrophic, no cilia or flagella.

  • Animal: multicelled, heterotrophic, no cell wall.

  • Plant: multicelled, autotrophic, cell wall.


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Circulatory mutations: Transports materials throughout the organism.

Digestive: Digests and absorbs food.

Respiratory: Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the environment.

Excretory: Rids the body of metabolic wastes and maintains the organism’s water balance.

Endocrine: Controls the chemical process of the organism.

Reproductive: Propagates the species

Skeletal: Supports and gives form to the organism

Muscle: Produces movement and helps maintain body temperature

Integumentary: Protection and regulation.

Nervous: Controls and coordinates the organism. Senses and reacts to the environment.

Immune: Protects the organism from foreign invaders.

7. Interpret the functions of systems in organisms


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8. Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole

  • Circulatory system carries oxygen, food, wastes, and hormones, to and from the organism’s cells. The circulatory system is central, acting as the passage way for the others to use.

  • The digestive system breaks down complex foods for all cells. (C, M, N, E, & R)

  • Respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood. (N, M, S, C, & E)

  • The Excretory system maintains water balance within the body and removes its cellular wastes.

  • The skin protects the body from pathogens and water loss. It also helps regulate the body’s temperature.

  • The Immune system protects the body from foreign invaders (antigens).

  • The Muscular system allows the movement of the body and materials within it. It also helps in regulating the body’s temperature.

  • The Skeletal system forms the body’s foundation and serves as an attachment point for its muscles.

  • The Nervous system coordinates the body’s systems by sending and receiving messages.


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TAKS other and to the body as a whole

Objective 3


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Objective 3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment.

  • Compare the structure and functions of viruses to cells

  • Identify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health

  • Identify evidence in change in species using fossils

  • Illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation

  • Analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels

  • Interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism

  • Investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids

  • Evaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments


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1. of the interdependence of organisms and the environment.Compare the structure and functions of viruses to cells

  • The virus contains a protein coat and a nucleic acid core.

  • The cell contains a membrane and specific organelles.

  • Viruses must reproduce inside a cell.

  • Cells reproduce by themselves.

  • All viruses are pathogenic.

  • Most cells are not pathogenic.

  • Both the cell and the virus contain nucleic acids.

  • Both the cell and the virus use ATP.


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Some bacteria are pathogenic (disease causing). of the interdependence of organisms and the environment.

If they find their way into other organisms, diseases such as: Diphtheria, Strep throat, Botulism, and scarlet fever can develop.

Not all bacteria are pathogenic.

Many are useful in decaying dead material helping to recycle valuable materials.

Bacteria are also used to make many foods taste better. Yogurt is produced due to bacterial action.

They also help certain plants (legumes) produce fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen.

Bacteria found on the skin helps keep pathogenic fungi from harming the body.

2. Identify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health


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3. Identify evidence in change in species using fossils of the interdependence of organisms and the environment.

  • Evolution refers to change.

  • These changes can be seen is examining fossils (remains of organisms since long gone),

  • Similarities in fossil DNA also show change over a period of time

  • Structural similarities can be compared

  • Similarities in the origin of their limbs (homologous organs) will show the progress of change in speciation.


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4. Illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation of the interdependence of organisms and the environment.

  • Changes in the frequencies of a population’s genes is evidence for evolution.

  • Evolution can only occur in a population of organisms and not in an individual organism.

  • Natural selection relies on the population’s ability to reproduce successfully.


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5. Analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels

  • Useable energy is transferred from one trophic level to another at a rate of 10%.

  • 90% of the energy is given off of as heat.

  • This is a main reason why there are fewer consumers at the top of the pyramid than on the lower levels.


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6. trophic levelsInterpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism

  • The predator’s population depends upon how many prey are available.

  • The graph shows how each population changes in relations to each other.

  • Symbiotic relationships can be other than a prey-predator situation.

  • Parasitism occurs when one organism takes from the other without giving anything back.

  • Mutualism occurs when both organisms in the relationship benefit.

  • Commensalism occurs when one benefits and the other is not harmed or helped.


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7. trophic levelsInvestigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids

  • In reading a food web the arrows show the direction in which the energy is flowing.

  • The arrow always points to the organism eating the organism.

  • If more than one arrow is leaving an organism, that organism is a food source for multiple organisms.

  • The producers are always at the base of the web.

  • The producers are also found at the lowest level of a food pyramid.

  • The second level contains the primary consumers (herbivores).

  • The rest of the levels contain carnivores.


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8. trophic levelsEvaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments

  • Most land plants need roots, stems, and leaves to survive.

  • Each part of the plant contains adaptations to help with survival.

  • Leaves contain a waxy layer (cuticle) to prevent water loss.

  • Their stomata (holes in the leaf) allow water and gases to enter and leave the leaf.

  • The stem and roots contain vascular tissue to transport water and food to each of its cells.

  • The xylem transports water and the phloem food.

  • The flower allows the plants to reproduce forming fruit.

  • The fruit is designed in a way to help spread the seeds through out the environment.


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