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Turbo TAKS. Week 2 Lesson 1- Cells Lesson 2- Taxonomy Lesson 3- DNA Lesson 4- Protein Synthesis. Lesson 1: Cells. 2 Types of Cells. Prokaryote- “pro”= before; “kary”- nucleus CELL DOES NOT CONTAIN A NUCLEUS OR MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES Example: Bacteria

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turbo taks

Turbo TAKS

Week 2

Lesson 1- Cells

Lesson 2- Taxonomy

Lesson 3- DNA

Lesson 4- Protein Synthesis

2 types of cells
2 Types of Cells

Prokaryote- “pro”= before; “kary”- nucleus

  • CELL DOES NOT CONTAIN A NUCLEUS OR MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES
  • Example: Bacteria
  • Study Trick: Remember that pro rhymes with no nucleus
  • Eukaryote- “eu”= true; “kary”- nucleu
  • CELL CONTAINS A NUCLEUS
  • CELL CONTAINS MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES
  • Examples: Plant, Animal, Protist, Fungus
cell processes overview
CELL PROCESSES OVERVIEW
  • Permeability
    • Diffusion
    • Osmosis
  • Cell Division
    • Mitosis
    • Meiosis
  • Energy Conversion
    • Photosynthesis
    • Respiration
  • Storage & Transport
slide6

Permeability (all cells):

Cells contain a semi-permeable membrane that allows certain things in and out of the cell

slide7

Diffusion (all cells):

  • Movement of substances from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration,
  • Disposes of wastes and brings in nutrients
slide8

Osmosis (all cells):

Movement of water across a membrane from an area of more water to less water (high to low concentration)

Membrane

slide9

Osmosis (all cells):

Movement of water across a membrane from an area of more water to less water (high to low concentration)

Membrane

slide10

Osmosis (all cells):

Movement of water across a membrane from an area of more water to less water (high to low concentration)

Membrane

slide11

Osmosis (all cells):

Movement of water across a membrane from an area of more water to less water (high to low concentration)

Membrane

slide12

Osmosis (all cells):

Movement of water across a membrane from an area of more water to less water (high to low concentration)

Membrane

slide13

Osmosis (all cells):

Movement of water across a membrane from an area of more water to less water (high to low concentration)

Membrane

slide14

Osmosis (all cells):

Movement of water across a membrane from an area of more water to less water (high to low concentration)

Membrane

slide15

Osmosis (all cells):

Movement of water across a membrane from an area of more water to less water (high to low concentration)

Membrane

slide16

Photosynthesis (happens in plant cells):

  • Converts light energy (radiant energy) to chemical energy (glucose)
  • Light energy is used to convert CO2 to glucose in plants
  • Happens in the chloroplast
slide17

Respiration (happens in all cells):

Converts glucose into cell energy (ATP) in the mitochondria

ATP

slide18

Process: Photosynthesis

Organism: Plant

Place Occurs: Chloroplast

CO2 and H2O

ATP

Glucose and O2

The products of Photosynthesisare the reactants of Respiration

Process: Respiration

Organism: ALL

Place occurs: Mitochondria

slide19

Mitosis (happens in all cells):

Cell reproduction for growth, repair, and maintenance of somatic cells. Somatic cells are body cells (ex: liver, skin, kidney, etc.)

slide20

Meiosis:

Cell reproduction for the production of gametes (sex cells)

slide21

Storage:

  • Vacuoles store water, food, and minerals (all cells)
  • Central vacuole in plant cells
    • Becomes flaccid if cell loses water
    • Becomes turgid if cell gains water
slide22

Transport (all cells):

  • Endoplasmic reticulum transports proteins to the Golgi bodies to be packaged and processed

Endoplasmic

Reticulum

Golgi Body

classification
Classification

The largest and least specific category is a Kingdom

There are 6 kingdoms: 2 prokaryotic and 4 eukaryotic

Organisms are then placed into more specific groups in a particular order (KPCOFGS – see diagram)

Organisms are called by their Genus and species name

Ex: Homo sapiens

classification1
Classification

Animals most closely related will be in the same levels of classification

Test tip: Most closely related organisms will have the same genus

Which 2 are most closely related? How do you know?

kingdoms of life
Kingdoms of Life
  • Prokaryotic Kingdoms
  • Archaebacteria
    • Live in harsh conditions (without oxygen, extreme temperatures, in different chemical environments)
  • Eubacteria
    • Bacteria found on and around us
    • There are good and bad bacteria
slide27
Fungi

Decomposers/ heterotrophic

Mushrooms

Protista

Heterotrophs & Autotrophs

Mostly single-celled

Live in water

Amoebas, paramecium, euglenas

Has pseudopodia, cilia and/or flagella for movement

Plantae

Multicellular

Autotrophic

True roots, stems, and leaves

Animalia

Motile (can move)

Multicellular

Heterotrophic

Eukaryotic Kingdoms:

deoxyribonucleic acid structure

Phosphate group

Deoxy-ribose

Nitrogen

Base

P

P

P

P

D

D

T

T

A

D

D

D

D

D

D

C

C

G

G

G

P

P

P

P

Nucleotide

A

D

P

P

D

C

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Structure

DNA is made of Nucleotides

There are four kinds of nitrogen bases, so there are four kinds of nucleotides...

Adenine,Cytosine,

Guanine, and Thymine

slide30

P

P

D

T

A

D

D

D

C

G

P

P

DNA is shaped like

a Double Helix

(twisted ladder)

Cytosine pairs

with Guanine

Adenine pairs with Thymine

nucleotide sequence
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE

The order of the nucleotides forms the unique genetic code for the organism

The more closely related two organisms are, the more alike the order of their nucleotides will be

slide32
DNA replication
  • DNA makes an exact copy of its self
  • Happens before mitosis and meiosis

Mutation

  • A change in the sequence of nucleotides
  • Can happen in any cell, but can be passed on to offspring only if it occurs in a gamete cell
transcription dna mrna
Transcription (DNA mRNA)

DNA codes for proteins

The order of the nucleotides is the code for which a protein will be made

TRANSCRIPTION is making o copy of DNA into mRNA

(A = U; C=G)

Occurs in the nucleus

translation mrna protein
Translation (mRNA Protein)

The message on the mRNA is read by a ribosome

The message is translated into a protein

Occurs in the cytoplasm on ribosomes

Video:

http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/translation/movie.htm

genetic code
Genetic Code
  • Every three letters on mRNA is a codon
  • A codon codes for an amino acid
  • Ex: CCC codes for Proline