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Chapter 4
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  1. Chapter 4 Hardware for Educators

  2. The System Unit • System unit • Boxlike case that houses the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data

  3. Data Representation • Analog vs. Digital • Digital • Two states • (1) on • (0) off

  4. Data Representation • Binary number system • Combination of ones and zeroes represent characters

  5. Data Representation • ASCII • American Standard Code for Information Interchange • Converting a keyboard stroke into a byte

  6. The Components of the System Unit • The Motherboard • Contains many of the electronic components • Chip • A small piece of semiconducting material on which one or more integrated circuits are etched

  7. The Components of the System Unit • CPU and Microprocessor • Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer • Microprocessor contains the CPU in a PC

  8. The Components of the System Unit • The Control Unit • A component of the CPU that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer • Fetch - get the next instruction from memory • Decode - translate the instruction • Execute - carry out the command • Store the result - write the result to memory • Machine cycle

  9. The Components of the System Unit • The Arithmetic/Logic Unit • Performs the execution part of the machine cycle • Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) • Comparison (greater than, equal to, less than) • Logical (AND, OR, NOT)

  10. The Components of the System Unit • The System Clock • Synchronizes all computer operations • Each tick is called a clock cycle • Faster clock means more instructions the CPU can execute each second • Speed measured in megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz)

  11. The Components of the System Unit • Memory • Used to store data, instructions, and information • The operating system and other system software • Application programs • Data being processed by application programs • Bytes are stored at specific locations or addresses

  12. Seats in a stadium are similar to addresses in memory: • A seat in memory holds one person at a time, and an address in memory holds a single byte • Both a seat and an address can be empty • A seat has a unique identifying number and so does an address

  13. The Components of the System Unit • Memory • Size of memory is measured by the number of bytes available • Volatile memory – contents are lost when the computer is powered down • Nonvolatile memory – contents are not lost when the computer is powered down

  14. The Components of the System Unit • Random Access Memory (RAM) • The memory chips in the system unit • When the computer starts, operating system files are loaded from a hard disk into RAM • Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM) • Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM)

  15. The Components of the System Unit • Random Access Memory (RAM) • RAM Chips • Smaller in size than processor chips • Packaged on circuit boards called single inline memory modules(SIMMs) or dual inline memory modules (DIMMs)

  16. The Components of the System Unit • Random Access Memory (RAM) • Configuring RAM • The more RAM, the more programs and files a computer can work on at once • Software usually tells you how much RAM is required • Necessary RAM depends on what type of work the computer is used for

  17. The Components of the System Unit • Read-Only Memory (ROM) • Cannot be modified • Contents not lost when the computer is turned off • Flash Memory • Type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten on

  18. The Components of the System Unit • Expansion Slots and Expansion Cards • Expansion slot • An opening, or socket, where a circuit board can be inserted into the motherboard • Add new devices or capabilities to the computer • Expansion card • Circuit boards, such as a modem or graphics card, that add new capabilities to the computer

  19. The Components of the System Unit • Expansion Slots and Expansion Cards • Three common types • Video card • Sound card • Internal modem • Plug and Play

  20. The Components of the System Unit • PC Card • Thin credit card-sized device that adds capabilities to small computers • Flash Memory Card • Removable memory device that allows users to transfer data and information from a mobile device to a desktop computer

  21. What is Input? • Any data or instructions you enter into the memory of a computer • Data - unorganized facts • Programs - series of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task • Commands - an instruction given to a computer program • User responses - responses to questions or messages from the software

  22. What are Input Devices? • Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer

  23. What are Input Devices? • The Keyboard • Typing area • Numeric keypad • Toggle keys • Status lights • Arrow keys - arrow control keys • Function keys • Specialized buttons

  24. What are Input Devices? • Pointing Devices • An input device that allows you to control a pointer on the screen • Block arrow • I-beam • Pointing hand

  25. What are Input Devices? • Pointing Devices • Mouse • One or two button mouse • Moving the mouse pointer • Clicking • Dragging • Double-clicking • Optical mouse • Cordless mouse

  26. What are Input Devices? • Touchpad and Pointing Stick • Touchpad – small, flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and motion • Pointing Stick – pressure-sensitive pointing device shaped like a pencil eraser

  27. What are Input Devices? • Pointing Devices • Trackball • Like a mouse, but the ball is on top • Often used on portable computers

  28. What are Input Devices? • Pointing Devices • Joystick • Uses the movement of a vertical lever • Often used with games • Wheel • Steering-wheel type input device • Used to simulate driving a car

  29. What are Input Devices? • Pointing Devices • Touch screen • Monitor has a touch sensitive panel • Used to issue simple commands or choose from a list of options • Kiosks

  30. What are Input Devices? • Optical Scanners • Captures an entire page of text or images such as photographs or artwork electronically • Converts the text or image on the original document into digital data that can be stored on a disk and processed by the computer

  31. What are Input Devices? • Pen Input • Users write, draw, and tap on a flat surface to enter input • Stylus – small metal or plastic device that looks like a tiny ink pen but uses pressure instead of ink • Digital pen – slightly larger than a stylus

  32. What are Input Devices? • Digital Cameras • Allows you to take pictures and store the photographed images digitally • Download, or transfer, pictures to your computer

  33. What are Input Devices? • Audio and Video Input • Audio input • Entering music, speech, or sound effects • Sound card • Speech Recognition • Computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words

  34. What are Input Devices? • Audio and Video Input • Video input • Entering a full-motion recording into a computer and storing the video on a hard disk or some other medium • Video capture card

  35. What are Input Devices? • Input Devices for PDAs, Smart Phones, and Tablet PCs • Stylus • Voice Input • Portable keyboard • Scanner • On-screen keyboard • Digital camera

  36. What is Output? • Text • Graphics • Audio • Video

  37. What are Output Devices? • Any computer component capable of conveying information to the user • Commonly used output devices • Monitors • Printers • Data Projectors • Facsimile machines • Multifunction devices • Speakers • Headsets

  38. What are Output Devices? • Monitors and Display Devices • Screen housed in a plastic or metal case • Variety of sizes • Cathode ray tube (CRT) • Pixels • LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors

  39. What are Output Devices? • Large Display Monitors • Allow an audience or a group of students in a classroom to easily view images and multimedia displayed on a computer • Available from 27 to 36 inches

  40. What are Output Devices? • Large Display Monitors • High-definition television (HDTV) • Gas plasma monitor

  41. What are Output Devices? • Flat Panel Monitors and Displays • Uses liquid crystal instead of a CRT • Consume less than 1/3 the power of a CRT • Thinner and lighter than a CRT

  42. What are Output Devices? • Monitor Quality • Resolution (sharpness and clarity) • Expressed as number of columns and rows • 800 x 600 • 1800 x 1440 • Dot pitch • Refresh rate • ENERGY STAR

  43. What are Output Devices? • Printers • An output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film • Hard copy (printout) • Portrait vs. landscape • Printing requirements vary

  44. What are Output Devices? • Nonimpact Printers • Do not strike paper • Much quieter • Ink-jet printers • Spray tiny drops of ink onto the paper • Both black-and-white and color

  45. What are Output Devices? • Nonimpact Printers • Laser printers • High-speed, high-quality nonimpact printer • Very high quality resolution