90 likes | 117 Views
Afghan Refugees. The Basics. Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country. People are motivated to leave due to political and economic conditions. 900,000 estimated to be internally displaced, with further hundreds of thousands fleeing to the surrounding countries of Pakistan and Iran.
E N D
The Basics • Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country. • People are motivated to leave due to political and economic conditions. • 900,000 estimated to be internally displaced, with further hundreds of thousands fleeing to the surrounding countries of Pakistan and Iran. • 3.6 million refugees still living in Pakistan from the 1979-89 Soviet invasion.
Reasons for leaving Afghanistan • 40% of Afghanistan’s population live below the UN poverty line • Political and economic hardship combined with repeated famines has made migration the only option for millions of impoverished Afghans • Protracted civil war • The nation is in the midst of its worst drought in 30 years • People’s lives are under threat of further American military attacks • Appalling child mortality rates, health-care provision, and nutrition levels
Where The Refugees Go • 1 The border with Pakistan stretches over 2500km, most of which is mountainous terrain. Approximately 250,000 people tried to cross the border in October 2001 alone • 2 Iran currently has more than 1.7 million refugees from Afghanistan • 3 At Peshawar the UN Food Aid Agency provides monthly food rations to 57,000 in two camps 1 3 1 1 2 1 1
Where The Refugees Go • 4 At Jalozai, a makeshift refugee camp established in November 2000, and closed February 2002, more than 100,000 refugees lived. Conditions in the camp were poor, with a severe lack of shelter, food, or decent medical provision. 4
Attitude of Afghan Government • The new democratic Afghan government is keen to see the return of the refugees • In economic terms, the displaced millions represent a large potential labour force and consumer market • The rebuilding of the country can only be achieved with stability. This comes from maintaining a fixed and permanent population
Attitude of Pakistani Government • Pakistan is a poor, heavily populated country, suffering from internal political disputes, lack of foreign investment, and a costly confrontation with neighboring India • It has $21bn in foreign debt due in 2002/2003, totaling 50% of government expenditure • A large proportion of its own people live below the UN poverty line • Country cannot support the refugees, and the government wishes to close the border to them, and return the many millions of existing Afghan refugees as soon as possible • However, international concern has obligated them to take a ‘soft’ approach to refugees from Afghanistan
Webliography • pupilvision.com • worldvision.org • amnesty.org • refugees.org • english.pravda.ru/war • odci.gov/cia/