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Marketing Communications. An Introduction. Marketing Communications Defined. The coordination and integration of all promotion tools and sources within an organization to maximize the impact on consumers and other end-users at minimal costs. Components of Promotion. F I G U R E 1 . 3.

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Presentation Transcript
marketing communications defined
Marketing Communications Defined
  • The coordination and integration of all promotion tools and sources within an organization to maximize the impact on consumers and other end-users at minimal costs.
components of promotion
Components of Promotion

F I G U R E 1 . 3






Sales Promotions

Personal Selling











example of direct marketing database marketing
Example of Direct Marketing/Database Marketing

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The MINI Laval Service Team



F I G U R E 1 . 6

Factors Affecting the Value of IMC Programs

  • Development of information technology
  • Changes in channel power
  • Increase in competition (global competitors)
  • Maturing markets
  • Brand parity
  • Integration of information by consumers
  • Decline in effectiveness of mass media advertising

E X H I B I T 1 . 1

Shoe Advertisements

  • Which advertisement attracts your attention the most?
  • Which advertisement is the least appealing?
  • How important is the brand name in each ad?
  • What is the message of each individual advertisement?
  • What makes each advertisement effective?
  • What are the pros and cons of each advertisement?

Skechers (

Reebok (

New Balance (

Asics (


What’s Happening!

communications theory
Communications Theory
  • In order to understand marketing communications, one must not only understand marketing, but also understand some elements of communication theory.
  • Communication defined - the process by which individuals share meaning.
  • Information is what is exchanged in the communication process
  • Information is described as a one-way process, whereas the communication process is regarded as two-way, a dialogue
  • Why do we try and obtain information before making a purchase?
  • A receiver-orientated view defines information as the “reduction of uncertainty” (Wersig 1974:73)
the power of information
The Power of Information
  • Certain communication initiatives are “better” at eliciting information – i.e, personal selling, and forms of direct marketing and direct response marketing
  • Information is obtained through mutuality, sharing with other consumers – i.e., impact of word of mouth communications, and consumers knowledge and interactions.
  • Information is key to influencing and determining consumer choice decisions.
communication process a linear model
Communication Process:a linear model












F I G U R E 1 . 2

Communication Noise in Television Advertising

advertising clutter
Advertising Clutter

Discussion Slide

  • How many ads were you exposed to during the last 24 hours from the following media?
    • Television
    • Radio
    • Magazines
    • Newspapers
    • Billboards
    • Internet Web sites
  • How many ads can you recall from each of the above media?

F I G U R E 1 . 9

Viewer Activities During TV Commercials

  • Positive Responses
    • Ads have potential to be entertaining (45%)
    • Sit and watch ads (16%)
  • Negative Responses
    • Get up and do something else (54%)
    • Get annoyed (52%)
    • Switch channels (40%)
    • Talk to others in the room (34%)
    • Turn down the sound on the TV (19%)
    • Read (11%)
    • Use the computer (5%)

Source: Jennifer Lach, “Commercial Overload,” American Demographics,

(September 1999), Vol.. 21, No. 9, p. 20.

kelman s model of message source characteristics
Kelman’s model of Message Source characteristics

Source Credibility

Source Attractiveness

Source Power

source credibility
Source credibility
  • Refers to the extent that receivers perceive the source as able and willing to give an objective opinion.
source attractiveness
Source attractiveness
  • Occurs when the receiver identifies some type of relationship with the source and therefore adopts a similar position.
source power
Source power
  • This is said to be present when the source of a message is able to reward or punish.