The ReformationCounter Reformation Religious and Political Crisis in North and Central Europe1517-1555 Did the actions of Martin Luther create positive or negative change? Was life “improved”? How does this religious reformation appear in other regions?
The Protestant Reformation • Italian Renaissance humanism • Christian humanist, Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) • In Praise of Folly • Martin Luther • Justification by faith alone • Ninety-five Theses, 1517 • Three pamphlets, 1520 • Excommunication, 1521 • Edict of Worms • Peasants’ War, 1524-1525 • Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1556) • Wars • Peace of Augsburg, 1555 • Thirty Years Wars
Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521) Changing role of the Catholic Church • Abuses in the rituals and practices of the church such as training average priests and appointing relatives to church positions • Celibacy of the priests • Worldliness of the church and church officials • Bishops, Archbishops, Priests owning a great deal of property and acting very wealthy including having affairs outside of the church. • Practice of Simony • Paying for a church office (buying your office) • Lay investiture • appointment of church offices by rulers instead of church officials. • Heresy – • Speaking out against the doctrine of the church. (Inquistions throughout Europe) • Indulgences • Payment for sin • Good deeds, property and often during this period simply gold or silver (visit to a cemetery considered good deed)
Martin Luther (1483-1546) • Educated and trained as a Catholic theologian • His “95 Theses” and the challenge on indulgences • Development of his thinking leads to excommunication (1520)
Background to the Reformation • Ongoing abuses within the Church • The “training” of average priests • The privileges of church leaders • Pluralism • Nepotism • General worldliness • Literacy and print culture • Political changes
Luther’s Thinking Develops and ideas spread after 1517 • Three Significant Pamphlets (1520) • Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation • The Babylonian Captivity of the Church • Freedom of a Christian • Two Major Doctrinal Innovations • Sola Fide (By Faith Alone) • Sola Scriptura (Scripture Only)
Luther at the Diet of Worms (1521): “I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise.”
Luther Seeks Refuge with Duke Frederick of Saxony • German princes harbor Luther as challenge to papal role in politics • Charles V unable to respond initially due to other concerns • Luther translates Bible into German
Jean Calvin (1509-1564) • Catholic priest who converts in 1534 and flees to Geneva • Brief time in Strasbourg with Martin Bucer • Institutes of the Christian Religion(1536): Predestination • Return to Geneva, the center of Reform in late-16th century
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) • Based in Zurich • Scripture as the only authority • Non-sacramental liturgy(They’re Symbols) • Marburg Colloquy (1529) dispute with Luther • Dies in Battle during Swiss civil war
Anabaptists: Radical Reformers • “Re-baptizers”: Bible a blueprint for society • Conrad Grebel & the Swiss Brethren -- Schleitheim Confession (1527) • Thomas Muentzer claims Luther sold out • Muenster Experiment in 1534-35 • Menno Simons advocates pacifism (Mennonites) • Based in Zurich • Scripture as the only authority • Non-sacramental liturgy(They’re Symbols) • Marburg Colloquy (1529) dispute with Luther • Dies in Battle during Swiss civil war
The Catholic Reformation • Charles V tries negotiation, then force • Schmalkaldic League: Protestant princes come together to defend themselves • Defeated in 1547 at Mühlberg • Peace of Augsburg (1555): Cuius regio, eius religio. • “Reform in the bones”: New Foundations • Capuchins • Ursulines • Jesuits: The shock troops of Catholic reform: education and advisors to rulers
The Catholic Reformation (“Reform in the Head”) • Initial response is to ignore • Fifth Lateran Council (1513-1517): “Men are to be changed by, not to change, religion.” • Paul III (r. 1534-1549) • Interesting blend of old and new • Places reformers in the curia • “Advice of the Reform of the Church” (1537) • Sets up Roman Inquisition (The Holy Office in 1542) • Calls Council of Trent (1545-1563)
The Council of Trent (1545-1563) • Reaffirmed Old Doctrines • Authority in tradition AND Scripture • Church seen as sole interpreter of Bible • Salvation through faith AND works • Affirmed distinction between laity and priesthood • Rejected predestination • Improved training of priests and required bishops to spend time in their dioceses • Encouraged missionary zeal • Repressive measures as well: Inquisition and “The Index”
Sorting Through the Doctrinal Differences • Sources of Salvation • Attitude towards Sacraments • Role of the Clergy • Relations between Church and State
Thirty Years War1618 - 1648 • Conflict began when, on May 23, 1618, the Protestants in Prague threw two of Bohemian king Ferdinand II's ministers out a window. This act was known as the Defenestration of Prague. • Bavarian • Danish • Swedish • French • The population of central Europe and the Germanic regions fell from 15 million in 1600 to 11 million in 1650
Bohemian Phase • Bohemians chose a Protestant over a Catholic successor to Rudolph II. They threw two ministers of Ferdinand II out the window when he refused to interfere and with his refusal many Protestants began to be persecuted. This began the 30 years war which had 4 different phases but was fought mostly on Germanic soil. • It expanded to include the dynastic rivalries of ambitious German princes and the determination of certain European powers, notably Sweden and France, to curb the power of the Holy Roman Empire, then the chief political instrument of Austria and the ruling Habsburg family. The first phase ended with Ferdinand II bringing the Germanic city states back into the Catholic fold.
Danish Phase • The Germanic city states sought help from other protestant countries, notably England and Denmark. • England, fearful of igniting the Catholic resurgence of Spain chose to stay out of the battle. Denmark intervened. • Christian IV really wanted the Duchy of Holstein returned to his rule and thought that by appearing to support the Germanic city states would reap the rewards of a weakened Holy Roman Empire. • Christian’s armies combined with other protestant supporters was defeated.
Swedish Phase • Richelieu and the French did not like the increasing power of the Hapsburgs but because France was a Catholic state it could not intervene on the side of the Protestants. Richelieu allied with the Swedish and supplied them men and supplies while appearing to stay out of the battle. • The Peace of Prague gave some concessions to the Saxon Protestants, ending this phase of the war but not defeating the Hapsburg ambitions.
French Phase • Religious issues were not a factor in the beginning of the 4th and final phase with France declaring war on the Spanish Hapsburgs who sought to take the throne of France through marriage and inheritance. • The Danes entered on the side of their former enemies, the Holy Roman Empire and after many battles which saw each side winning some victories the Hapsburgs, now under the rule of Ferdinand III capitulated signing the Treaty of Westphalia. • The Treaty, in addition to establishing Switzerland and the Dutch Republic (the Netherlands) as independent states, the treaty gravely weakened the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburgs, ensured the emergence of France as the chief power on the Continent, and disastrously retarded the political unification of Germany.
Journal of Pierre Vuarin • “In transit they killed everyone they encountered as if it were open warfare. They burnt villages raped girls and women, pillaged and damaged churches and altars, carried away everything of value and did unheard of damage even though His Highness (Duke Henri II) provisioned them. Further they cut growing corn as feed for their horses which they stabled in churches. Everywhere they did infinite damage, stealing furniture and livestock, which they managed to discover even when hidden in the remoteness of woods. For five whole days they (the Prince of Phalsbourg and his men who were supposed to be repelling the invaders) lived off the country, pillaging and extorting money like the enemy forces... The poor villagers returning to their villages after the passing of the soldiery picked up infections from human and animal carcasses left behind by the marauders. A third died from dissentry and other infectious diseases in the villages through which the soldiers had passed. “
Results and Impact • 30% decrease in German population • devastation of German agriculture • ruin of German commerce and industry • the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire, which was a mere shell in the succeeding centuries • the decline of Hapsburg greatness. • The war ended the era of conflicts inspired by religious passion, and the Peace of Westphalia was an important step toward religious toleration. • The incredible sufferings of the German peasantry were remembered for centuries. • The political settlements of the peace were to the disadvantage of Germany as well as the Hapsburgs. • The poor relationship between N Germany from Austria was to continue for more than two centuries
Religious conflict • Creates hostile environment and migration begins, much of it to the new world • Conflict between secularist and reformers forces new claims by monarchs regarding divine authority