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The Reformation & Counter-Reformation. (1500s Europe). How did the Renaissance lead to the Protestant Reformation?. (Class document handouts). Document 1 The Medieval R.C. Church. Describe the role of the RCC in the Middle Ages. Document 2 The Renaissance.

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The reformation counter reformation

The Reformation & Counter-Reformation

(1500s Europe)

Document 1 the medieval r c church
Document 1 The Medieval R.C. Church

Describe the role of the RCC in the Middle Ages.

Document 2 the renaissance
Document 2The Renaissance

How did the introduction of new trade around 1300 change Europe?

Document 3 humanism
Document 3Humanism

How did the ideas of the Humanists differ from those of people during the Middle Ages?

Document 4 the renaissance church
Document 4The Renaissance Church

How did the Church pay for the religious masterpieces of art created during the Renaissance such as DaVinci’s Last Supper?

Document 5 the printing press
Document 5The Printing Press

What were Gutenberg’s first projects for reproduction?What effect would the availability of books have on society?

Document 6 johann tetzel
Document 6Johann Tetzel

What is an indulgence?Why would an everyday person in the early 1500s buy an indulgence from Tetzel?

Document 7 martin luther
Document 7Martin Luther

Why would Martin Luther give credibility to the protest against the abuses of the RCC?How do you think the pope will react to Luther’s actions?

John calvin 1509 1564 french priest

1536 published The Institutes of the Christian Religion

Christians could only reach heaven through faith alone

Predestination – the belief that God had determined before the beginning of time who would gain salvation

Church is led by local council of ministers

Followed strict code of conduct (no fighting, swearing, drunkenness, gambling, card playing or dancing)

Set-up a model community in Geneva, Switzerland

John Calvin (1509-1564)French Priest

Henry viii 1491 1547 king of england

After 18 years of marriage, Henry & his wife, Catherine of Aragon (Spain), had only one child, a daughter named Mary

He asked the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine in an effort to remarry and obtain a male heir (common practice during the time since the Catholic Church does not allow divorce)

The pope refused Henry’s request since the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, was Catherine’s nephew

Henry VIII (1491-1547)King of England

Why does Henry want a male heir?Predict how Henry will react to the pope’s refusal.

Henry s supremacy

1534 Act of Supremacy

Created the Church of England

Made Henry head of the Church (not the pope)

Kept Catholic doctrines & forms of worship

Reaction in England

Devout Catholics opposed

1535 Thomas More (Utopia) beheaded for treason

1536-1540 Henry closed monasteries & convents and seized Church land

Henry’s Supremacy

What was Henry’s goal for all of these changes?Should Henry be considered part of the Reformation?

Henry s wives
Henry’s Wives

Archbishop Thomas Cranmer annulled Henry’s

marriage to Catherine in 1532. Catherine is

separated from Mary, banished from court

& 4 years later, died of a broken heart.

Catherine of Aragon

m. 1509 - 1532

Henry marries Anne Boleyn (Catherine’s lady

in waiting) in 1533 & they have a daughter,

Elizabeth. Anne falls out of Henry’s favor after

a still-born son. She is executed on false

evidence for treason in 1536.

Anne Boleyn

m. 1533 - 1536

Eleven days after Anne’s execution, he married

her lady in waiting, Jane Seymour. Jane

gave birth to a boy, Edward, but died after

complications 12 days later.

Jane Seymourm. 1536 - 1537

Henry s wives cont
Henry’s Wives (cont.)

Thomas Cromwell, his Chief Minister,

persuaded Henry to marry Anne for an alliance

with Germany, as Anne's father was the Duke.

However, Henry didn’t find her attractive

& they divorced amicably.

Anne of Cleves

m. 1540 Jan. - July

Kathryn was a cousin of Anne Boleyn. She was

19 when she married Henry (he was 50). She

was accused of having lovers & was

beheaded in 1542 (with the lovers).

Kathryn Howard

m. 1540 - 1542

Katherine became a companion and nurse for

Henry in old age. She reunited him with

his children, who all came back to court before

his death in 1547.

Katherine Parr

m. 1543 - 1547

What became of the church of england after henry s death
What became of the Church of England after Henry’s death?

  • Henry VIII’s will gave the throne to his children: Edward (if no male heirs)  Mary (if no male heirs)  Elizabeth (if no male heirs)  Henry’s younger sister & her family (they were Protestant)

  • 1547 – Edward succeeded Henry at 9 years old to become Edward VI.

  • The young king was surrounded by Protestant officials who pushed for Calvinist reforms.

  • Thomas Cranmer drew up the Book of Common Prayer

    • Imposed moderate form of Protestant service

Why did these reforms spark violence in England?

What became of the church of england after henry s death cont
What became of the Church of England after Henry’s death? (cont.)

  • Edward VI died of tuberculosis in 1553 (at 15) w/o an heir  he gave the throne to his cousin Jane Grey (bypassing his sisters)

  • Jane was queen for 9 days until one-by-one, the counties proclaimed Mary queen.

  • Mary became queen in 1553 (at 37) & married her cousin, Philip II of Spain (at 27), the son & heir of Charles V (HRE)

  • Many English were unhappy w/ a Catholic monarch & plots against the queen began  Mary responded w/ executing 300 people & earning her nickname “Bloody Mary”)

Why didn’t Edward want his sisters to become queen?

What became of the church of england after henry s death cont1
What became of the Church of England after Henry’s death? (cont.)

  • Mary fell ill in the spring of 1558 & died that fall w/o an heir  the crown passed to Elizabeth

  • Avoiding religious tension – she adopted the Act of Uniformity (a religious compromise of Protestant belief and Catholic practice that became known as Anglican

    • Book of Common Prayer reestablished

    • The monarch headed of the Church

    • Latin was the language of the Church

    • Catholic hierarchy was kept

    • England was firmly a Protestant nation

Why did Elizabeth adopt the Act of Uniformity?