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AP World History Review: Human/Environment Interaction

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  1. AP World History Review:Human/Environment Interaction Mr. Millhouse AP World History Hebron High School

  2. Human/Environment Interaction • This theme includes: • Demography & Disease • Demography is the statistical study of human populations • Migrations • Patterns of Settlement • Technology

  3. Paleolithic Era: Demography Population growth during the Paleolithic Era was relatively stagnant

  4. Paleolithic Era: Migration

  5. Paleolithic Era: Patterns of Settlement • Hunter-Gatherers (Foragers) • Men hunt and/or fish; women gather fruits • Follow migratory patterns of animals • Need large portions of land to support themselves • Life expectancy was 20 years or less • Lived in groups of 20-30 people

  6. Paleolithic Era: Technology

  7. Neolithic Era: Technology • Agriculture (10,000 BCE) • Caused by climate change? • Slash & Burn • Domestication of Animals • Technology related to agriculture • Irrigation, canals, etc. • Bronze metallurgy • People need nature & nature needs people

  8. Neolithic Era: Demography • Effects of agriculture • Increase in population • Rise of disease • Decline of life expectancy • Environmental degradation • Increase in pollution • Increase in deforestation • Increase in desertification Intensive agriculture caused human population to jump from 5-8 million to 60 to 70 million in 5,000 years

  9. New Patterns of Settlement • Small village communities • Pastoral societies • Nomadic herders • Rise of civilizations • Mesopotamia (3500 BCE) • Egypt (3000 BCE) • Indus River (2500 BCE) • China (2000 BCE) • Olmec (1400 BCE) • Chavin (900 BCE)

  10. Human Migration: Indo-Europeans Aryans

  11. Human Migration: Polynesians Bananas!

  12. Human Migration: Bantu

  13. New Technology: Iron • Iron use begins 1500 BCE • Effects of Iron • Population growth • Expansion of agriculture • Growth of cities • Expansion of civilization

  14. Patterns of Settlement: Classical Era

  15. Classical Demography • Spread of epidemic disease • Smallpox, Justinian plague, etc. • Population decreases dramatically • Europe falls 50% between 200-600 CE • Asia’s population falls from 170 to 135 million between 0-600 CE • Contributes to the decline of classical empires

  16. Post-Classical Migration Camels!

  17. Post-Classical Demography • Population grows after 800 CE • Technology • Europe: moldboard plow and three-field system • China: Champa rice & terrace farming • Africa: Iron plow • Aztecs: Chinampas • Spread of crops • Rice, cotton, sugarcane, citrus fruits, etc. End of a mini-Ice Age?

  18. Post-Classical Demography • Urbanization • Hangzhou—1 million ppl. • Paris—275,000 people • Italian cities • Tenochtitlan • Bubonic Plague • China’s population fell 50% from 1200-1400 • Europe’s population fell 33%-50% • Population took only 100 years to rebound

  19. Spread of Civilization

  20. Spread of Civilization

  21. Demography 1450-1750: Americas • Discovery of the Americas • Decreased indigenous American population by as much as 90% • Replaced by two waves of migration • African slave trade • European colonization

  22. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

  23. Columbian Exchange

  24. Demography 1450-1750: China • China’s population tripled from 1650-1750 • Improved farming techniques • Introduction of American crops (potatoes and corn) • End of nomadic invasions

  25. Demography 1450-1750: Europe • Urbanization • Netherlands became 1st country with 50% urban population • London—50,000 in 1600; 400,000 by 1650 • Paris—200,000 in 1350; 500,000 by 1700 • Agricultural Revolution • Crop rotation and enclosures • American crops (corn and potatoes) • Population in every area of Europe increased by 50-100% in the 18th century

  26. Industrial Revolution & Resources Cotton Cotton Cotton Palm Oil Rubber Rubber Rubber Gold & Diamonds Gold Meat

  27. Demography 1750-1914: Global

  28. Demography 1750-1914: Europe • Tremendous population growth • Improvements in food supply • Application of science & technology • Improved seeds, fertilizer, & livestock • Refrigeration • Industrial transportation eliminates famine • Steamboat • Creates a greater need for new energy sources • Coal, electricity, gas, & petroleum

  29. Demography 1750-1914: Europe • Demographic transition • High to low mortality • High to low fertility • Rapid urbanization • Suburbanization • Decline in urban mortality • Urban sanitation • Germ theory of disease

  30. European Migration from 1750 • 40 million Europeans emigrated to the two Americas, Australia, Asiatic Australia, South Africa, and other areas

  31. African Slave Trade after 1750 • Nearly two million Africans were shipped to the Americas between 1750 & 1870

  32. Demography 1750-1914: Asia • Japanese population growth increased dramatically after 1850 • Provides labor for industrialization & helps promote imperialism • Asia’s population nearly doubled • China’s population went from 220 million to 435 million • India’s population went from 165 million to 290 million

  33. Asian labor migration after 1750 Japan: Over 500,000 to the Americas and Pacific China: Over 8 million emigrated to Southeast Asia (Thailand-1.5 million & Indonesia-2.8 million) and the Americas India: Over 1 million emigrated as indentured servants to South Africa & Caribbean U.S. limits immigration with Chinese Exclusion Act & Gentlemen’s Agreement

  34. Population Explosion of 20th Century • Why? • Introduction of new food crops (Columbian Exchange), colonialism ended local warfare, railroads cut down on famine, improved hygiene & medicine, resistance to birth control, declining infant mortality rates

  35. Causes of Population Growth • Public Health Measures • Attacks on disease carrying insects • Widespread vaccinations • Polio Vaccine • Information campaigns • Programs to control sewage and other contaminants • International agencies focused on health care • More dependable food supplies • New farming methods

  36. Polio Vaccine

  37. Diseases Associated with Poverty: Malaria

  38. New Epidemic Diseases: AIDS

  39. Diseases Associated with Old Age Predicted Alzheimer's cases 2005-2050

  40. Diseases Associated with Changing Lifestyles

  41. Improved Agriculture Green Revolution Peasants Uprisings China, Mexico, etc. Pressure Third World governments Urbanization Parasitic cities Urban pollution Immigration East Asian emigration continued Middle East & Africans emigrated to Western Europe & the U.S. Immigrants face prejudice Impacts of Population Growth

  42. Limiting Population Growth • Many countries advocated birth control & legalized abortion • 85% of countries backed family planning • China adopted a two-child policy in 1977 • Eventually became a one-child policy in 1979 • Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi proposed involuntary sterilization • Return of plague epidemics • AIDS virus

  43. New Scientific Discoveries • Einstein’s Theory of Relativity • Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle • Quantum mechanics • Behavior of matter & energy at the atomic level • Big Bang Theory • Psychology • Sigmund Freud • Karl Jung