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The Automotive Industry: PowerPoint Presentation
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The Automotive Industry:

The Automotive Industry:

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The Automotive Industry:

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  1. The Automotive Industry: • Fuel Value ChainHeavy Duty Diesel Technology

  2. Section Overview • Air Pollutants from Diesel HDVs • HDVs Engines • Units • European HDD Engine Standards • Particulate Matter • HDD Emissions • Effect of Fuel Quality • Heating Release and Cetane • Sulfur • Conclusions

  3. Air Pollutants from Diesel HDVs • Pollutants similar to diesel light-duty vehicles • Carbon monoxide • Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) • Hydrocarbons (HC or THC) • Particulate Matter (PM) • Sometimes (NOx + HC) are regulated together • Carbon dioxide • Implies fuel efficiency Image Source: www.peterbilt.com

  4. Heavy Duty Diesel Engines • Fuel economy favors use in commerce • no throttling losses • emissions control impacts efficiency • Power density is now high • 35 kW/liter on-road Image Source: www.everytime.cummins.com

  5. Heavy Duty Diesel Engines – cont’d • Lower speed operation than for light duty • 1,800 rpm rated speed typical for large trucks • Rated speed is increasing to 2100 rpm. • Higher speed = higher power density • 2,600 rpm typical for 1-liter per cyl. engines • Higher fuel ignition tolerance • Stringent on-road standards • NOx (0.02g/hp-hr USA 2010), PM • PM traps (2007, USA on-road) Image Source: www.cat.com

  6. Units • Light-duty vehicles are usually regulated in distance-specific units, eg. g/mile or g/km. • Heavy-duty vehicles are regulated through engine emissions standards. Brake-specific (Brake = flywheel energy) units are used, such as g/bhp-hr or g/kw-h. • They can be compared approximately using fuel-specific units, such as g/kg fuel or g/gallon fuel. • The nature of the test cycle will affect emissions, regardless of units chosen

  7. European HDD Engine Standards • In 1992 Euro I standards were introduced. The NOx and PM levels are easily attained • Euro II regulations in 1996 and 1998 reduced NOx slightly and PM was reduced by more than a factor of two • Euro I and II used steady-state tests • Euro III standards (2000) introduced NOx and PM levels similar to US 1998 standards. These can be met with fairly conventional technology • Euro IV/V standards (2005/2008) included allowance for enhanced environmentally friendly vehicles • As in the US, off-cycle emissions are prohibited • There are durability requirements.

  8. PM • Particulate matter (PM) is usually defined by a filter collection method • Filter method implies a mass standard • Europe is adopting number count • Number count / mass / health effects research is ongoing (ACES) • PM consists of small particles and condensed droplets • Composition varies widely • PM is often classified by size • Both primary (tailpipe soot, brake dust) and secondary PM (from NOx) arise from engines and vehicles

  9. PM Emissions & Turbocharging • Turbochargers increase engine power density • Full boost • Wastegates • Variable geometry • Variable vane • There is a 1 to 4 second lag in boost • A “puff” of PM (and CO) arises if the engine is too rich during a transient images: Garrett turbocharger & www.dieselparticulatefilter.com

  10. HDD Emissions

  11. Meeting PM Standards – The Technology • US 1991 Standards or Euro II 1996 standards are reasonably easily met with high pressure fuel injection and careful air management • Euro III and US 1994 standards require more attention to air management. Electronic control is a benefit • Euro IV and US 2007 levels represent substantial reduction and require exhaust PM filtration • Catalyzed exhaust PM filtration requires “ultra low sulfur diesel” (10 to 50 ppm)

  12. Exhaust PM Filtration Technology Images: www.dieselforum.org

  13. Injection Styles for Diesel Engines • Common rail operation permits multiple injections (or rate shaping), high pressure injection, and precise control. • Unit Injectors are still widely employed • Both styles offer multiple injection opportunities • Fuel must have sufficient lubricity for all diesel engines (Europe: 460-microns wear scar maximum limit via HFRR test) (ASTM D975 Lubricity, HFRR @60°C D6079 520 max microns) Image Source: Bosch & Delphi

  14. Fuel Quality Effects

  15. Fuel Effects • Effects are similar for heavy-duty and light duty • High cetane & high paraffin fuels reduce NOx, improve cold starting • Ultra-low sulfur levels are required for oxidation catalysts and catalyzed PM filters • Control of T90 or T95 assists in reducing PM • Low-sulfur & low base lubricating oils are now favored for use with ULSD

  16. Relating Heat Release and Cetane • Low cetane causes large premix burn • Premix burn encourages NOx formation • Low cetane hinders starting Source: Dieselnet.com

  17. Diesel Sulfur Content • Europe • 1994 2,000 ppm. (49 Cetane) • 1996: 500 ppm. • 2000: 350 ppm (51 Cetane) • 2005: 50 ppm maximum. “Sulfur-free” 10 ppm sulfur diesel also required. • 2009: 10 ppm • USA • 2006: 15 ppm for on-highway, ready for 2007 low PM standard

  18. Conclusions • Fuel quality effects are similar for LDVs and HDVs • Sulfur content is the most important issue • T90/T95 limit is important to reduce PM