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Modern Automotive Technology

Modern Automotive Technology. by Russell Krick. Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois. PowerPoint for. Body. Made of sheet metal, plastic, or fiberglass parts Forms the passenger compartment Serves as an attractive covering for the chassis Chassis

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Modern Automotive Technology

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  1. Modern Automotive Technology by Russell Krick PublisherThe Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Tinley Park, Illinois PowerPoint for

  2. Body • Made of sheet metal, plastic, or fiberglass parts • Forms the passenger compartment • Serves as an attractive covering for the chassis • Chassis • includes the engine, suspension, steering, brakes, wheels, tires, etc.

  3. Frame • Strong metal structure that supports various vehicle components • Body-over-frame construction • body bolts on to the frame • Unitized (unibody) construction • inner body sections support the engine, suspension, and other major assemblies

  4. Unibody Construction Frame is an integral part of the body

  5. Body-on-Frame Construction

  6. Sedan Uses center body pillars, or “B” pillars, between the front and rear doors Has 4 doors

  7. Coupe 2 door car

  8. Convertible Uses a vinyl or cloth top that can be raised or lowered

  9. Hatchback Large rear door allows easy accesswhen hauling items

  10. Station Wagon Provides a large rear interior compartment

  11. Minivan Has a higher roofline for moreheadroom and cargo space

  12. Sport-utility Vehicle Provides the comfort of a passenger car, the interior space of a station wagon, and the durability of a truck

  13. Automobile Body Parts

  14. Engine Locations

  15. Vehicle Identification • Door Jam

  16. Vehicle Identification • Windshield

  17. Vehicle Identification • Under hood

  18. Four-Stroke Cycle • Four separate piston strokes are needed to produce one cycle • Piston must slide down, up, down, and up again to complete one cycle • Piston strokes required: • intake • compression • power • exhaust

  19. 4 Stroke Engine

  20. Intake Stroke Draws the air-fuel mixture into the cylinder

  21. Compression Stroke Compresses the air-fuel mixture

  22. Power Stroke Produces the force to operate the engine

  23. Exhaust Stroke Removes the burned gases from the combustion chamber

  24. Cylinder Arrangement

  25. Number of Cylinders • Most car and truck engines have either 4, 6, or 8 cylinders • Some may have 3, 5, 10, 12, or 16 cylinders • Engine power and smoothness are enhanced by using more cylinders

  26. Cylinder Numbering and Firing Order

  27. L-head Engine Both the intake and exhaust valves are in the block

  28. I-head Engine Both valves are in the cylinder head

  29. Overhead Cam Engine Camshaft is located in the top of the cylinder head

  30. Overhead Cam Engine • OHC engines may use one or two camshafts: • Single overhead cam (SOHC) engine • uses only one camshaft per cylinder head • Double overhead cam (DOHC) engine • uses two camshafts per cylinder head • one cam operates the intake valves, while the other cam operates the exhaust valves

  31. Pancake Combustion Chamber Valve heads are almost parallel to the top of the piston. Chamber forms a flat pocket over the piston head

  32. Wedge Combustion Chamber Domed Piston Provides good air-fuel mixing at low engine speeds Flat Top Piston

  33. Hemispherical Combustion Chamber First used in high-horsepower racing engines. Excellent design for high-rpm use

  34. Rotary Engine • Uses a triangular rotor instead of pistons • Rotor orbits a main-shaft inside a specially shaped chamber • This eliminates the reciprocating motion found in piston engines

  35. Rotary Engine

  36. Rotary Engine Operation

  37. Rotary Engine Animation http://www.animatedengines.com/wankel.shtml

  38. piston ( radius squared) x strokedisplacement = Piston Displacement • Volume the piston displaces as it travels from BDC to TDC • Found by comparing cylinder diameter and piston stroke • Piston displacement formula:

  39. Bore and Stroke

  40. If an engine has a bore of 4” and a stroke of 3”, what is its piston displacement? piston (22) x 3.14 x 3displacement 4 x 3.14 x 3 37.68 cu. in. = = = Piston Displacement

  41. Compression Ratio This engine has eight times the volume at BDC, producing an 8:1 compression ratio

  42. Compression Ratio • Formula for compression ratio: compression cylinder volume at BDCratio cylinder volume at TDC • Use of high compression ratio: • increases engine fuel efficiency and power • increases exhaust emissions (NOx) • increases risk of detonation =

  43. Compression Pressure • Amount of pressure in the cylinder on the compression stroke • Measured in pounds per square inch (psi) or kilopascals (kPa) • Gasoline engine compression pressure: • 130–180 psi (900–1200 kPa) • Diesel engine compression pressure: • 250–400 psi (1700–2800 kPa)

  44. Horsepower One horsepower equals 33,000 ft lb of work per minute

  45. Horsepower For a small engine to lift 500 pounds a distance of 700 feet in one minute, about how much horsepower would be needed? hp = 500 lb x 700’ 33,000 = 10.6 hp

  46. Engine Efficiency

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