Objective • Objective: - • Explain how symbols affect motivation and emotion. • Begin to identify and describe the roles of the brain structures and glands involved in motivation and emotion Drill: What are your own definitions of Emotion and Motivation?
How about this? • How do you and your friends act when you go get fast food? • What is different about how you act at a fast food restaurant than a regular restaurant? • How about in the cafeteria? Are the rules different when you are a freshman than if you are a senior?
Symbolism, Motivation, and Emotion • Is hunger and Motivator? Why? • Think about Thanksgiving Dinner. If you were a visitor at someone’s house for Thanksgiving, how would you act different than if you were at home for a regular dinner? What would you do different? • Let’s take a look during the time of Bill Shakespeare.
Discussion • Would you say eating is a ritual? • Eating is 100% a ritual. Don’t we go out to eat if we are celebrating something? Don’t we act differently when we are out eating in public? Don’t we eat and act differently at fast food restaurants. • Why can’t you wear jeans to a high class restaurant? • Why do people not wear suits when they go to McDonalds? Isn’t that eating out?
What exactly is Motivation and Emotion? • Motivation: The drive to seek a goal • Emotion: State of the body that causes certain feelings (hope, joy, fear) • Both require the physiological and psychological factors
The Hypothalamus • The Hypothalamus is the part of our brain that controls pain and pleasure • Certain parts of the hypothalamus can trigger certain things • Factors that can be triggered include: fear, rage, hunger, thirst, pain, pleasure, or sex • Some of these factors just weren’t meant to be messed with
Page 125-Fat Rat! • This rat had his hypothalamus messed with and weighs 1,080 grams. A normal rat weighs 200. Here is something else, take your weight and multiply is by 5 and that’s is what you would be like similar to the rat.
The BULL • There was an experiment done on a bull in which a small radio reciever was connected to the bull’s hypothalamus on the fear part. • The experimenter got into the ring with the bull armed with only a radio transmitter. • As the Bull rushed him, he pushed a button and sent an impulse to the Bull and it luckily stopped.
The Amygdala • The amygdala associates itself with fear and aggression • If the amygdala is destroyed, then fear will be also • IF your amygdala is destroyed than not only will you not feel fear, but you will not be able to recognize it on someone’s face
First try • In your notes… • Does motivation change as we get older? • Make a list of what exactly motivates you to come to school. • Compare your list with mine.
Recap • How do symbols affect motivation and emotion? • How do different regions of the brain affect motivation and emotion?
Essential Question • Objective: What are the roles of the brain structures and glands involved in motivation and emotion? Review: Pituitary gland, adrenal gland, gonads, testes, ovaries, androgens, estrogen
Review • Gonads: Sex glands • Testes: male sex glands that make sperm • Ovaries: female sex glands, make eggs • Androgen: male hormones: control interest in men and women • Estrogen: female hormones: controls the reproductive cycle.
Notes for today…. • The Reticular formation: • Part of the brain that registers and controls activity levels • This part makes us express the emotion we are feeling at a certain time. Can we think of any examples? • The Pituitary and Adrenal Glands • Most parts of the brain require chemicals to get us going. The Pituitary and Adrenal glands provide our bodies with these chemicals
The Pituitary and Adrenal • The Pituitary Gland • Regulates growth hormones, mainly controls other glands and hormones • Controls reactions like, anxiety, excitement, some emotions • The Adrenal Gland • There are 2 on each side of the belly button. This gland secretes Adrenaline which, as we know, makes our hearts beat faster, increases our breathing, or prepares us for emergencies
Baby Facts • In early development, the hypothalamus sends messages to the fetus making it male or female. • Sometimes a baby is born with both forms of genitalia. • Read first paragraph on page 127.
Sexual Interest and Symbolism • Interest is caused by our hormones • However, the female hormone estrogen has the primary goal of regulating the reproductive cycle. • The male hormone is designed to be the key to start sexual interest while the female hormone has a lack of interest. • Read last paragraph on page 127.
Motivational Forces • Motivation results from drives! • Define drive and goal in your own words.
Drive and Goal • Drives are…forces that push an organism into action in order to reach a goal. • Goals are…what our behavior is aimed toward. • For example, if you are thirsty, you need water (goal) and you are driven by the body to find it.
Motivational Forces • The body is an awesome thing. It’s drives operate in cycles to maintain balance. • For example, if we workout very hard, when we rest we rest hard. • This process is called homeostasis. This is the process of maintaining a balanced internal state. • If we are driven to eat, we eat. When we are satisfied we stop eating.
Hunger • Read the hunger subsection on page 128. • Work on your LGO’s.
Objective • Objective: SWBAT- • Define terms related to hunger, explain why people feel hungry, explain the ways in which people are motivated by nonsurvival needs, and assess their own levels and types of motivation
Hunger • Before we start, who wants to share some of their eating habits? • How many of you ate b-fast this morning? • How many of you will eat lunch? • Will you eat dinner? • What is 4th meal? • How much can you eat at one time?
Hunger????? • While his gut was studied, they did get to see how the digestive system works. They noticed that when depressed, the amount of stomach acid in the stomach drops. • In contrast, the levels of stomach acid almost double when angry. The next time you get really mad…try to eat something.
What causes hunger???? • Many scientists believe that hunger is due to our hypothalamus. • They first studied animals and noticed that stimulation to the side of the hypo made them eat even after they were full. Kind of like the rat from the other day.
What causes hunger???? • Try skipping a few meals and see how you start to feel. Most of the time you feel light-headed and dizzy. Why??? • It is because our blood-sugar level has dropped. • Blood-Sugar Level- the amount of sugar contained in the blood which indicates hunger • GLUCOSE-sugar in the blood
What causes hunger???? • You can raise your Blood Sugar by eating a candy bar or drinking a soda. • But it won’t be long until it drops even further. • Eat a better source of food like a meat or a pasta b/c it contains a better source of glucose. • The hypo contains “glucose monitors” that determines our blood sugar levels. If they are too low than we start to feel hungry. • You can skip a meal b/c our body stores glucose in case of an emergency
What else causes hunger???? • The next time you eat, stop after 5 minutes and see how you feel. You should start to feel less hungry even though the food hasn’t even reached your stomach. How is this so??? • Well, our tongues, our brains and chemical responses have taught us that we will be satisfied. When food hits the tongue, it tells the brain that we are eating. This is where the eating disorder Bulimia comes in to play.
Activity • Using page 131, describe in your notes the various factors that control weight.
Factors that Control Weight. • Obesity has been an increasing problem over the last few decades. • Some researchers believe that a very heavy person is not able to correctly read messages from the hypo. There is a chemical imbalance. • One reason why people are obese is that they see a food, like it, eat it, and don’t think about it. The problem with this is that whether or not they feel hungry, they feel obliged to eat it.
Other Factors that Control Weight. • Overweight people also tend to eat when they are under stress. • Here is a fact, under stress women are more likely to eat sweet, high fat foods than men are. • However, there are people out there that can eat and eat and eat and never gain an ounce. Can we think of any? • The reason that this is, is because people have different “SET POINTS”
What are Set Points? • A set point is a mechanism in the body that regulates what each person’s weight should be. • If a person has a high set-point, the body will therefore be trying to get to that weight and the same is true for low set-points.
Objective • EQ: • What ways are people motivated by non-survival needs and how do we assess our own levels and types of motivation?
First Activity • The following is a list of “PHYSICAL” factors that make us feel hungry. Write them down • Stomach contractions • Blood-sugar levels are low • Taste receptors are on • You are losing weight • If these are some physical factors that make us hungry, what are some psychological factors?
Activity #2 • Please turn to pages 152-153 in your book. • Before we read, let’s take a minute to discuss some things. • At what age do you think people are most influenced by the “ideal” body size that is presented by the media? Do you think that as people mature, we become immune to these messages? • Let’s read this brief story and discuss it.
Let’s talk about Thirst!!! • The human body is made up of 65-70% of water • Our bodies can only go a certain amount of time without water whereas our body stores fat in case of emergencies • We have “counters” in our brains that keep track of the amount of water molecules in our body at any given time.
Thirst • Yes, when our tongues are dry signals we are thirsty, our stomach also has receptors in it to tell us we need water. Most animals have these receptors on their tongues. We don’t! • We have temperature receptors on the tongue which trigger desire for cold drinks in the summer and hot drinks in the winter. • Here’s what the hypothalamus does with water: It registers the dryness of the tongue, temp. of water, and balance of water in the body cells.
Non-Survival Needs • Humans have needs for lots of things. We even have a need for change. If things all stayed the same what would happen? • Are these changes needed for survival? • Curiosity Motive: a drive that moves a person to seek new and different things. • We are constantly motivated to find new things. Here’s a funny example, you are sitting in rush-hour traffic and not moving. There is an accident and what does everyone do?
Here’s what you are doing. • Read through pages 134-136 • Cover the following: Manipulation Motives, Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation • Be sure to define and give examples
Here are the Answer’s • Manipulation Motive • “Drive to use and handle new things” • Higher Primates share this drive with human beings • Monkeys love playing with puzzles, hooks and latches • They also love new inventions such as videos and video games • This proves that animals (including people) love and feel a desire for some type of change.
Intrinsic-comes from within Better performance in school and work Greater creativity and general life satisfaction. Extrinsic-comes from outside. Being less involved and feeling negative about what you are doing. Grades and praise “IN”trinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Need for Stimulation • Contact Comfort was an idea suggested by a psychologist named Harry Harlow. • Contact Comfort- satisfaction obtained from soft physical stimulation • Monkey Experiment-page 136 • Human Experiment page 137
Assignment • Learning Goals outline questions
Objective • EQ: What are the 5 types of motivational needs according to Maslow?
Theory of Needs • Psychologist Abraham Maslow came up with a theory called “Hierarchy of needs” • They are a system that ranks human needs one above the other, with the most basic needs for physical survival at the bottom of the pyramid.
Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological needs: the bottom of the hierarchy that include hunger and thirst • Safety Needs: the second level at the bottom that include shelter, nest egg of $$ • Belongingness Needs: The third level that include friendship, closeness with others • Self Esteem Needs: the 4th level that include liking yourself, respecting yourself, and making yourself feel important and useful • Self-Actualization needs: the top of the pyramid that include establishing meaningful goals and a purpose in life.
Activity #1 • Answer these questions with a partner. • Which is more important to you, finding a meaningful career or developing long-lasting friendships? Explain why you chose this. • Compare Homeostasis with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. How are these two similar and/or different from each other. Please explain and be prepared to share your response with the class.
Next discussion Question!!! • In your experiences, has the need to “fit in” and be approved by your peers increased or decreased since your freshman year? Why?
Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy • With your partner, I want you to think of 3 famous people or organizations of people that seem to be operating at one of Maslow’s five levels. • For example, who or what kind of people can we include at level one? Why is this? • You MUST provide a brief response for why you chose this person or group