Matakuliah : O0072 / Pengantar Psikologi Tahun : 2008 MOTIVATION & EMOTIONPertemuan 10
DEFINITIONS • Motivation • The internal state or condition that activates and gives direction to our thoughts, feelings and actions • Emotion • Positive or negative feelings generally in reaction to stimuli that are accompanied by physiological arousal and related behavior
PRIMARY MOTIVES Biological Needs • Human motives for things that are necessary for survival, such as food, water and warmth • Other primary motives : sexual motive – because the species could not reproduce and survive if the sexual motive were not satisfied • Hypothalamus : the part of the forebrain involved with motives, emotions and the functions of the autonomic nervous system • Incentives : external cues that activate motives
PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES • Motives related to the individual’s happiness and well being, but not to survival • Types of Motivation : • Affiliation • The need to be with other people and to have personal relationship • Achievement • The psychological need in humans for success • Intrinsic and Extrinsic • Intrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious external incentive present • Extrinsic motivation is human motives activated by external rewards
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF MOTIVES • Physiological needs The physiological needs of the organism (those enabling homeostasis) take first precedence. These consist mainly of: • Eating • Drinking • Sleeping • Sex • If some needs are not fulfilled, a human's physiological needs take the highest priority. Physiological needs can control thoughts and behaviours, and can cause people to feel sickness, pain, and discomfort. • Safety needs • When physiological needs are met, the need for safety will emerge. When one stage is fulfilled, a person • naturally moves to the next. These include: • - Personal security from crime. • - Security as against company lay-offs • - Health and wellbeing • - Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF MOTIVES • Love/Belonging/Social needs After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social. The psychological aspect of Maslow's hierarchy. This involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as: • friendship • sexual intimacy • having a supportive and communicative family Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group (such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs) or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure. e.g. an anorexic ignores the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of belonging.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF MOTIVES • Esteem needs According to Maslow, all humans have a need to be respected, to have self-respect, and to respect others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem, inferiority complexes, an inflated sense of self-importance or snobbishness. There are two levels to Esteem needs. The lower of the levels relates to elements like fame, respect, and glory. The higher level is contingent to concepts like confidence, competence, and achievement. The lower level is generally considered less advanced and more external; it is dependent upon other people. Someone in this level needs to be reassured because of lower esteem. People with low esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again are dependent on others. However confidence, competence and achievement only need one person and everyone else is inconsequential to one's own success. It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.
self-actualizing people: They embrace the facts and realities of the world (including themselves) rather than denying or avoiding them. They are spontaneous in their ideas and actions. They are creative. They are interested in solving problems; this often includes the problems of others. Solving these problems is often a key focus in their lives. They feel a closeness to other people, and generally appreciate life. They have a system of morality that is fully internalized and independent of external authority. They have discernment and are able to view all things in an objective manner. In short, self-actualization is reaching one's fullest potential. According to Maslow, the tendencies of self-actualizing people are as follows: 1. Awareness efficient perception of reality freshness of appreciation peak experiences ethical awareness 2. Honesty philosophical sense of humor social interest deep interpersonal relationships democratic character structure 3. Freedom need for solitude autonomous, independent creativity, originality spontaneous 4. Trust problem centered acceptance of self, others, nature resistance to enculturation - identity with humanity MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF MOTIVES
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF MOTIVES • Maslow believes that we should study and cultivate peak experiences as a way of providing a route to achieve personal growth, integration, and fulfillment. Peak experiences are unifying, and ego-transcending, bringing a sense of purpose to the individual and a sense of integration. Individuals most likely to have peak experiences are self-actualizing, mature, healthy, and self-fulfilled. All individuals are capable of peak experiences. Those who do not have them somehow suppress or deny them.
DEFINITION • a complex psychophysical process that arises spontaneously, rather than through conscious effort, and evokes either a positive or negative psychological response and physical expressions, often involuntary, related to feelings, perceptions or beliefs about elements, objects or relations between them, in reality or in the imagination
THREE THEORIES OF EMOTIONS (1) • Somatic theories William James in the late 19th century believed that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. These changes might be visceral, postural, or facially expressive. The most basic of these somatic theories is the James-Lange theory. This theory and its derivates state that a changed situation leads to a changed bodily state. It is this bodily state which in turn gives rise to an emotion. Hence the emotion fear upon encountering a bear in the woods would follow from: • Spot a bear • -> Heart start beating faster; adrenalin is being produced • -> The emotion fear arises This approach underlies experiment where through manipulating the bodily state, a desired emotion is induced (e.g. in laughter therapy).
THREE THEORIES OF EMOTIONS (2) • The Cannon-Bard theory Walter Cannon provided empirical evidence against the dominance of the James-Lange theory of the physiological aspects emotions in the second edition of Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Cannon and Bard came up with a different account of the relations between emotions and behavior; where a certain situation leads to an emotion; which in turn activates a typical behavior. Here the emotion fear upon encountering a bear in the woods would result in: • Spot a bear • -> The emotion fear arises • -> Run away
THREE THEORIES OF EMOTIONS (1) • Cognitive theories Research in social psychology interprets emotions as a combination of two elements; physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation. The earliest account of such a theory is the Singer-Schachter theory that is based on experiments that varied arousal introducing chemical (adrenaline) and put the participants in different situations. The combination of the appraisal of the situation (cognitive) and whether participants received adrenaline or a placebo together determined the response. In the example of the bear this would lead to: • Spot a bear • -> Adrenalin is released, hearts starts beating faster • -> The sight of a bear is interpreted as being dangerous for the health (note this needs not necessarily be a conscious appraisal) • -> The emotion fear arises.
Robert Plutchik’s eight primary emotions. The emotions that Plutchik lists as primary are: anger fear sadness joy disgust surprise curiosity acceptance The following is Ekman’s list of basic emotions: anger fear sadness happiness disgust PRIMARY EMOTIONS
PHYSICAL RESPONSES TO PRIMARY EMOTIONS • Physical responses Attached to the idea of primary emotions as innate is the notion that each emotion causes a detectable physical response in the body. These responses are often perceived as sensation in the body; for example: • Fear is felt as a heightened heartbeat, increased “flinch” response, and increased muscle tension. • Anger, based on sensation, seems indistinguishable from fear. • Happiness is often felt as an expansive or swelling feeling in the chest and the sensation of lightness or buoyancy, as if standing underwater. • Sadness is often experienced as a feeling of tightness in the throat and eyes, and relaxation in the arms and legs. • Shame can be felt as heat in the upper chest and face. • Desire can be accompanied by a dry throat, heavy breathing, and increased heart rate.
Freud’s Instinct Theory • All animals (include human) are born with potent aggressive instincts. • This instinct create an uncomfortable pressure that must be released in some way, how ? • By finding the non violent ways to release aggressive energy • Ex. Competition in business/sports, reading violent stories, etc • Catharsis : the process of releasing instinctual energy
FRUSTATION-AGGRESSION THEORY • The theory that aggression is a natural reaction to the frustration of important motives
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY • People are aggressive only if they have LEARNED that it’s to their benefit to be aggressive • We will act aggressively in reaction to frustration only if we have learned to do so
COGNITIVE THEORY OF AGGRESSION • Superiority • Victims of injustice • Vulnerability • Distrust • Helplessness
Tugas • Mahasiswa menjawab pertanyaan dari buku Psychology : an Introduction hal 371, 381 (no.2), 398 (no.2) • Analisa DVD/VCD : Pursuit of Happiness berdasarkan salah satu teori emosi dan salah satu teori motivasi