Warm UP • Identify the following topics in your own words • Alfred Kinsey • Sexual Response Cycle • Extrinsic Motivation • Industrial Psychology • Theory x • Impotence
Emotion is Multifaceted • Emotion refers to the mix of: 1. Physiological Arousal 2. Expressive Behaviors (how you react to the physiological arousal) 3. Conscious Experience (how you cognitively interpret environment)
Facial Expressions Are Universal • No matter what part of the world you are from, facial expressions indicating 6 basic emotions tend to be universal.
Facial Expressions Are Universal • The six universal emotions are: • Happiness • Anger • Surprise • Sadness • Fear • Disgust
Context Affects Interpretation of Facial Expressions • Because of the context, many interpret the bottom monster as fearful while seeing the top monster as angry even though they have the same facial expression.
Cultural Differences In Emotion Expression • Although the facial language is universal worldwide, cultures differ in how much emotion they express. • Western cultures like North America often have intense, prolonged emotional displays while some Eastern cultures like Japan often hide their emotions, especially when the emotion is negative. • Why?
Effects of Facial Expressions • Do we smile because we are happy, or are we happy because we smile? • There is an interplay between the emotion and our expression of it. The muscle contractions associated with emotions tend to amplify that emotion.Facial Expression Exercise
Theories of Emotion • The theories of emotion deal with the interplay between your experience of the emotion and your body’s physiological response, looks to answer questions like: • Does your heart pound because you are afraid...or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?
James-Lange Theory of Emotion • The James-Lange theory would argue you feel fear because your heart is pounding. • The James-Lange theory argues that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion) James-Lange Theory of Emotion • ?
Cannon-Bard Theory Of Emotion • Cannon and Bard would NOT argue that feeling of fear causes your heart to pound NOR that your heart pounding causes the feeling of fear; they believe each occur simultaneously. • Cannon-Bard Theory:theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses AND the subjective experience of emotion.
Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Fear (emotion) Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Applying the Theories • Assuming someone had an injury in which they were unable to feel any bodily sensations, how would this affect emotional responses according to the two theories?
Schacter’s Two Factor Theory of Emotion Brings Cognition In • Schacter criticized the Cannon-Bard theory by arguing that we don’t automatically know when we are happy, angry, jealous, etc. We use situational cues to label our physical arousal. • Schacter Two Factor Theory: argues that to experience an emotion one must be physically aroused AND we must cognitively label the arousal. • CONTEXT MATTERS!!
Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Fear (emotion) Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Schacter’s Two Factor Theory
Must Cognition Precede all Emotions? • Because some pathways, especially ones involving amygdala (fear), bypass cortical areas involved in thinking. • But certain likes, dislikes, and fears do ignore conscious thinking.
Physiological activation Appraisal Emotional response Expressive behavior Event Subjective experience Two Routes to Emotion
Two Dimensions of Emotion Are Valence and Arousal 1. Valence refers to the level of pleasantness of the emotion. 2. Arousal refers to how much the emotion physically activates the body. • Different levels of valence and arousal lead to different levels of emotion. • Cognitive interpretations also effect how these dimensions work.
Positive valence pleasant relaxation joy Low arousal High arousal fear anger sadness Negative valence Two Dimensions of Emotion
Quick Write • Christine is holding her 8 month-old baby when a fierce dog appears out of nowhere and, with teeth bared, leaps for the baby’s face. Christine immediately ducks for cover to protect the baby, screams at the dog, then notices that her heart is banging and that she’s broken out in a cold sweat. • How would the James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Two-Factor Theories explain Christine’s reaction?