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WHI.12 The Late Medieval Period. The Late Medieval Period. During the late medieval period, some of the feudal states of Europe developed into strong nation-states.

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the late medieval period
The Late Medieval Period
  • During the late medieval period, some of the feudal states of Europe developed into strong nation-states.
  • A nation-state is a large group of people who are ruled by one central government, who share a common language, and who feel some loyalty to the group.
  • The rise of nation-states marked the end of feudalsim and a decline in the power of the Catholic church.
the late medieval period1
The Late Medieval Period
  • In 987, Hugh Capet established a new monarchy in France. He established the French throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France.
  • Along the French coast there was a region called Normandy. In 1066, William, the Duke of Normandy, crossed the English channel. At the Battle of Hasting he conquered England and became known as William the Conqueror.
the late medieval period2
The Late Medieval Period
  • The English system of law is called common law. It had its beginnings during the reign of Henry II. Common law is law that is developed by decisions through court judges rather than a legislative assembly. It is based on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different occasions. The power of the King of England was limited when King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta.
the late medieval period3
The Late Medieval Period
  • Fighting between the English and French kings made the people of France and England think of themselves as separate nations.
  • Beginning in 1337, the English and the French fought over territory in France. This period of fighting is called the Hundred Years’ War.
the late medieval period4
The Late Medieval Period
  • In 1429 a young French peasant girl named Joan of Arc inspired the French troops to victory in the Battle of Orleans.
  • Because of this victory, the French united under their king and drove the English out of France.
the late medieval period5
The Late Medieval Period
  • In 1469 the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile united all the sections of Spain into one country.
  • By 1492 they had forced the Muslim Moors out of Spain.
the late medieval period6
The Late Medieval Period
  • Under the leadership of Phillip II, Spain conquered large parts of the Americas. The American gold and silver brought wealth to the Spanish Empire.
the late medieval period7
The Late Medieval Period
  • The nation of Russia had its beginnings in the area around Moscow.
  • The Mongols, a tribe from north-central China, defeated the Russians in the early 1200s.
  • Ivan III, known as Ivan the Great, threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow and expanded the Russian nation.
  • Ivan the Terrible called himself tsar, the Russian word for caesar or emperor.
  • The Orthodox Church (Christian) influenced the unification of Russia with common goals and beliefs.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • In 1071 the Seljuk Turks took over land in the Byzantine Empire and spread their Muslim religion. When they conquered the Christians Holy Lands, Christians in Europe became alarmed.
  • In 1095 Pope Urban II appealed to the lords and knights of Europe to free the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks. He wanted Jerusalem to be under Christian control.
the late medieval period9
The Late Medieval Period
  • Pope Urban’s appeal created excitement. Lords and knights, eager for glory, adventure and wealth began to organize armies. Thus, the Crusades began.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • The Crusades were religious wars to take control of the Holy Land.
  • In the First Crusade, in 1099, Christians succeeded in conquering Jerusalem. When the warriors returned home, the Muslims reconquered the city.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • As a result of the First Crusade, several small crusader states were created. One of these states was the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • During the Third Crusade the King of England, Richard the Lionhearted led the Crusaders. After many battles, the Muslim leader Saladinwas able to maintain control of Jerusalem.
  • In 1204, the Fourth Crusade ended with the Christian warriors entering the city of Constantinople stealing much of its wealth, and setting fire to the city.
  • The Crusades were not successful.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • The Crusades had the following effects on Western Europe:
  • the authority of the Popeand the nobles were weakened
  • the power of the kings was strengthened
  • Trade was stimulated
  • the Byzantine Empire was weakened
  • there were bitter feelings among Christians, Jews and Muslims
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The Late Medieval Period
  • The Mongols, an aggressive group of people from China, attacked the Muslim nations in Southwest Asia. They destroyed the great cities of the Islamic nations and weakened the Byzantine Empire.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • In 1453, Constantinople, the last city of the Byzantine Empire, was conquered by a group of Turks called the Ottomans.
  • Constantinople became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • From 1347 to 1353 the Black Death spread through Europe killing one-third of the population. It is also known as the Bubonic Plague.
  • Trying to escape death, many people migrated across Europe. This migration helped to spread the disease.
  • Death and migration weakened feudalism and boosted the rise of the money economy. Since many serfs died, the remaining ones began demanding wages for their work.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • During this time of death, the Catholic church prestige was weakened. Because the clergy cared for the sick, many of the priests died. Those who fled from the plague were seen as cowards.
  • The Church could not end the plague and could not even explain the reasons for it. People began to question the wisdom, courage and power of their religious leaders.
  • There was a disruption in trade.
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The Late Medieval Period
  • Education was largely confined to the clergy during the Middle Ages. The masses of people were uneducated, while the nobility was concerned with their feudal obligations.
  • Church scholars were among the few who could read and write.
  • They worked in monasteries where they translated Greek and Arabic works into latin.
  • These scholars made new knowledge in philosophy, medicine and science available in Europe.
  • They laid the foundation for the rise of universities in Europe.