The Medieval Period - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Medieval Period

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  1. The Medieval Period (1066-1485)

  2. The Norman Conquest of 1066 • Normans • descendants of the Vikings • Invaded France and adopted French customs • William, Duke of Normandy • Promised throne by King Edward but Council elected Harold II, so William conquered and killed Harold in Battle of Hastings • Became King of England on Christmas day at Westminster Abbey • Overthrew Anglo-Saxon England / instituted French culture

  3. Norman England • Roman Catholicism became focal point of culture, including govt • French words replaced Anglo-Saxon words, as they were deemed more elite • govt instituted Feudalism William, Duke of Normandy

  4. Feudalism • Land was granted by the lord to the vassal in exchange for service during the Act of Homage in 3 ways: • personal use • to the church • to barons (lord’s supporters) • Land was called fiefs, and taxes & knights were supplied in retribution. • Land given to the knights was called the manor, and serfs worked this land.

  5. The Plantagenet Reign (1154) • Henry II • knowledge of govt & law • wanted to change church’s rule in govt • Richard I • put country in debt due to overseas fighting • John • signed Magna Carter (no taxation w/o rep) • beginning of constitutional govt in England • Henry III • Instituted parliamentary govt (The Great Council of Elders) • Edward I • Included free men into Parliament via election

  6. Decline of Feudalism • trade created the growth of towns • towns organized into labor unions, which overtook govt’s rule over the people THEREFORE • wealth no longer based on land ownership

  7. Bubonic Plague • “Black Death” (1348-49) • killed 1/3 of population of England • WHY? • People lived so close together that disease festered and spread rapidly – land ownership was a privilege of the wealthy • RESULT? • Labor shortage increased value of peasant work

  8. The Later Middle Ages (14th- 15th centuries) • Lancasters replaced Plantagenets • Henry IV, V, and VI • (subjects of Shakespeare’s history plays)

  9. John Wycliff • Believed: • church exploited the Bible • church shouldn’t be the wealthy • Directed the translation of the Bible from Latin to English • Hoped more people would read it and understand it and agree with his thought

  10. War of the Roses(1453) • Richard of York was appointed temporary King when Henry VI was sick • Would not step down when Henry VI recovered • Civil war broke out (Lancasters vs. Yorks) • Red rose vs. White rose • Yorks won in 1461 • Richard’s son Edward IV took throne

  11. House of York • Richard I • Edward IV (1461-1483) • Edward V • Just a boy • He and his brother died “mysterious” deaths in Tower of London while under protection of his uncle, Richard of Gloucester, who proclaimed himself King Richard III • Richard III

  12. End of the War of the Roses • Henry Tudor (Lancaster) • led rebellion against Richard III, killing him • King Henry VII • married Richard III’s niece, uniting the two houses • end of the civil war and the Middle Ages

  13. Chivalry • code of Knightly behavior • respected way of life for all citizens • Examples: • Loyalty and valor on/off battlefield • Pledge service to a lady • Joust for her favor • Rescue damsels in distress

  14. Chivalry in Literature • Troubadour • French poet • wrote stories about chivalrous knights • Romance • stories about chivalrous knights • written in Romance-influenced languages • French • Spanish • Italian

  15. King Arthur • Legendary king who instituted the Knights of the Round Table and code of chivalry • Made famous through • Tales of the Celts • Geoffrey of Monmouth • Norman scholar who wrote about K.Arthur

  16. Development of English Language

  17. Contributions to English

  18. Poetry of the Middle Ages • reflected the changes of English society and the English language • Poets: • William Langland • Geoffrey Chaucer • Types: • Lyrics – versus sung with accompaniment of a lyre • Ballads – folk songs that told a story

  19. Drama of the Middle Ages • Miracle plays (mystery plays) from the Bible • Cycle plays – presented a Biblical history of human kind • Morality plays – taught moral lessons in the form of allegory