Nationalism “An Era of Good Feelings” Coined by a Boston newspaper 1817 From the administration of Jefferson to 1840, the power of the central government increased at the expense of the states. Politically, economically and socially, to what extent is this a true statement?
War of 1812 • Great period of nationalism following the War of 1812 • Survived 2 wars with Britain; gained respect • War heroes emerge: Andrew Jackson, W. H. Harrison • U.S. begins to take a more prominent role in the world • U.S. manufacturing grew-more industrial self-sufficiency • Future begins to lie in the West; Natives lose land (abandoned by the British) • Canada becomes an acceptable neighbor as part of Britain
Federalist Demise • Federalists lose power after the War of 1812 • They were openly opposed to the war (N/NE) • Hartford Convention: talks of separate treaties and secession (become a precedent for the South) • Democratic Republicans operate with basically no opposition
Presidents • James Madison (1809-1817) • James Monroe (1817-1825) • John Quincy Adams (1825-1829)
Economic legislation Henry Clay-American System • Wanted federal govt. to build new roads and canals- “internal improvements” to tie regions together • Insisted on tariffs-promote Amer. Manuf. • Favored national bank-common currency • Wanted to make the nation economically self-sufficient
Economic legislation Second National Bank • 1811-charter of the First National Bank expires • Without the Bank, states could not provide a uniform nor sound currency, nor a safe depository for federal funds-state banks were clumsy with loans • 1816-Congress and Madison chartered the Second National Bank
Economic Legislation Protective Tariff of 1816 • 1st protective tariff in U.S. History • Designed to help protect American industries • Small industries prospered before and during the War, as competition abroad declined; after the war, American manufacturers face renewed competition; British can lower prices to shut down new industries • Tariff of 1816-protective rates that would result in higher prices for all goods, but support for Amer. manufacturers VS.
Supreme Ct. and Nationalism • John Marshall Court-Chief Justice • Supreme Ct. favored a strong federal govt. and a national economy • Marbury vs. Madison-judicial review • Gibbons v. Ogden-prepared way for federal regulation of rr, buses, airlines, radio, etc. • Dartmouth College v. Woodward-”sanctity of contracts”-states can’t pass laws impairing the obligation of contracts: power from the states • And….McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Ct. andNationalism McCulloch v. Maryland • Maryland was upset about the National Bank; state imposed a heavy ($15,000) operations tax on the bank’s Baltimore branch • McCulloch, branch manager, refused to pay the tax • Marshall denied the power of a state to tax an agency chartered by the federal govt. • National Bank is constitutional • State has no right to destroy that which the federal govt. has put into place • Supports loose construction and implied powers of the Constitution
Social/Culture Developments • Artists celebrate America’s beautiful landscape, patriotic themes, heroes of the Revolution, etc. • Novelists express great pride in the nation’s immense potential-Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Weems, Noah Webster (patriotic theme) • Hudson River School-majestic landscape paintings reflecting reverence toward nature and the spirit of nationalism
New Lands Adams-Onis Treaty: FL. (1818-1819) • FL. Housed pirates, smugglers, runaway slaves, Seminoles, etc. • Seminoles often clashed with white settlers, Spain rarely controlled them (had agreed to) • 1818, A. Jackson leads a force in and crushes the Seminoles; showed Spanish control of FL. Was weak • Sec. of St. J.Q. Adams and Spanish minister Onis agree to sell FL. To the U.S. for $5 million • U.S. agrees to give up claims to Texas • Set 42nd parallel as boundary between Spanish territory and Oregon Country-Spain gives up claims to the Oregon Country • U.S. and Great Britain will agree to share the contested Oregon Country they both claim
New Lands • Oregon dispute between the British and Americans from the Adams-Onis Treaty • Improved relations between the British and Americans: Treaty of 1818 • Share fishing rights off Newfoundland • Joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for 10 years • Northern limits of the LA. Territory at the 49th parallel
Compromises Missouri Compromise (1819-1820) • Crisis began when Missouri was admitted as a slave state; prior, there were an equal number of slave and free states (MO. would tip that balance) • Henry Clay drafted the compromise • Northern district of MA. Would enter the Union as a free state-Maine, to balance MO. Entering as a slave state • Drew a line across the country from the sw corner of MO. To the nation’s western boundary (LA. Territory): 36 30; north=free, south=slave
The West/Frontier • Rapid growth • Native lands acquired with the War: William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson (FL/South) • Economic pressure: prior embargo, the war on NE, new land for crops in the South • Improved transportation • Cheap land
Internal Improvements • War years demonstrated the internal transportation system was inadequate for national needs • Since improvements bound the nation together, should be supported by federal govt. • Early turnpikes and public roads dev. • National/Cumberland Road, 1816, across Appalachians (Maryland to Illinois initially) • Wilderness Road/Cumberland Gap, mountain pass from N.C. into TN. And KY. (Daniel Boone) • Steamboats-Robert Fulton • Canals-Erie Canal (1825) • Western frontiersmen (little attachments to particular state or region) migrated west; looked for the federal govt. to provide cheap land, internal improvements and protection vs. Indians
Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine (1823) • U.S. would not get involved in internal affairs of Euro. Countries, nor take sides in wars among them • U.S. recognized the existing colonies and states in the western hemisphere and would not interfere with them • U.S. would not permit any further colonization of the western hemisphere • Any attempt by a Euro. Power to control any nation in the western hemisphere would be viewed as a hostile act toward the U.S. • Bold statement, but no way to really enforce it