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Biotechnology. To accompany Georgia Middle School Lessons on Biotechnology Written by: Christina M. Spears Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Office July 2003. Objectives. Define Biotechnology Compare and contrast biotechnology and genetic engineering

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biotechnology

Biotechnology

To accompany Georgia Middle School Lessons on Biotechnology

Written by: Christina M. Spears

Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Office

July 2003

objectives
Objectives
  • Define Biotechnology
  • Compare and contrast biotechnology and genetic engineering
  • Explain how biotechnology helps increase production
  • List uses of biotechnology in plant and animal science
  • Explain historical uses of biotechnology
what is d n a
What isDNA?
  • Hereditary information stored in chromosomes
  • Stored as sequence of nucleotides
      • Five carbon base sugar
      • Phosphate group
      • Nitrogenous base

(c) http://whyfiles.org/075genome/images/dna.gif

what is biotechnology
What is Biotechnology?
  • Management of biological systems for benefit of humanity
  • Applied to general sciences
uses of biotechnology in plant and animal science
Uses of Biotechnology in Plant and Animal Science
  • Cloning
  • Herbicides
  • Increasing shelf life

© http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/genomics/5_reshaping/images/dolly.jpg

biotechnology vs genetic engineering
Biotechnology

All subjects of science

Bigger picture

Genetic Engineering

Genetics

Gene splicing, replication, and transfer of genes

More concentrated

BiotechnologyvsGenetic Engineering
how does biotechnology increase production
How does Biotechnology increase Production?
  • Develop new forms of plants and animals
  • Modify plants and animals to improve their life processes
  • Improving the quality of food
  • Longer shelf life for perishables
historical uses of biotechnology
Historical Uses of Biotechnology
  • Earliest techniques were used to make cheese and wine
      • Spoiled milk fermented to make cheese
      • Grape juice fermented to make wine
      • Today…we not only see wine and cheese but also yogurt and bread made from processes of biotechnology
activity
Activity
  • THE OLD RED DOG WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS BED
  • Have a deletion that would delete the D in OLD…sentence look like
  • THE OLR EDD OGW AST OOB IGF ORH ISB ED
  • If mutation caused inversion of word DOG…
  • THE OLD RED GOD WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS BED
intro to biotechnology lab activity
Intro to BiotechnologyLab Activity!!
  • Making Yogurt

Review handout on it

Form groups of three people and work together to make the yogurt

Two-day activity

biotechnology11

Biotechnology

Biotechnology in Plant Science

objectives12
Objectives
  • Identify biotechnologies in plant science
  • Discuss importance of biotechnology to humans
  • Explain the impact of cloning on plant science
  • Identify how manipulation of chromosome number affects plant characteristics

(c) http://www.myjanee.com/images/photoalbum/flora/marigolds.jpg

assignment
Assignment
  • In groups of three research one plant biotechnology
      • Hybrids
      • Herbicides
      • Genetic engineering
      • Number of chromosomes
discussion
Discussion
  • What are some biotechnologies used in plant science?
  • How will these biotechnologies help plants?
  • Identify some negative impacts of biotechnology use in plants
  • What is the danger of using herbicides?
  • How can grain be produced more efficiently with the use of nitrogen?
number of chromosomes
Number of Chromosomes
  • What is polyploidy?
      • Contain more than one haploid set of chromosomes (n)
  • How does polyploidy affect plants?
      • About 30-70% of angiosperms are polyploids
      • Peanut is 4n, Banana and apple 2n or 3n, and cotton is 4n
      • Deliberate polyploidy in marigolds, snapdragons, and watermelons

(c) http://www.mahyco.com/images/cotton.jpg

lab assignment
Lab Assignment
  • Asexual Propagation:
      • Cuttings
      • Layerings
  • For assignment:
      • Students break up into lab groups
      • Each group given a plant for stem tip cutting
biotechnology17

Biotechnology

Biotechnology

In Animal Science

objectives18
Objectives
  • Identify examples of biotechnology in animal science
  • Interpret magazine/newspaper and Internet articles about biotechnology
  • Describe how cloning affects animal science
  • Explain how the number of chromosomes influences animal characteristics

(c) http://www.advancedcell.com/pg_page1.html

assignment19
Assignment
  • In groups of three you will research a topic on biotechnology in animal science
  • After your research, your group will present your topic to the class
discussion20
Discussion
  • What are some biotechnologies used in animal science?
  • How will these biotechnologies help in the productivity of animals?
  • What are the impacts of these biotechnologies on the environment, consumer health, and animals?
  • How will these biotechnologies benefit humans?
  • What is cloning and how will it impact animal science?
epistasis
Epistasis
  • Define epistasis.
      • Having one or more genes that mask the effect of the dominant gene
      • Example: In Labrador Retrievers, BB/Bb gives black, bb gives brown, EE/Ee gives normal coat color, and ee gives yellow.

Cross BBEE with bbEE, what is the F1 generation?

Now cross the F1 generation, what is the F2?

© www.belquest.com/ homelogo02.jpg

polyploidy
Polyploidy
  • What is polyploidy and what kinds of animals are polyploids?
      • Polyploidy means having one or more set of haploid chromosomes (n).
      • In animals this phenomenon is rare, but one does see it in reptiles, amphibians, and insects
      • In the September 1999 issue of Nature, scientists revealed they found a tetraploid (4n) rat in Argentina
biotechnology23

Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering

objectives24
Objectives
  • Explain genetic engineering
  • Describe a procedure of genetic engineering
  • Identify the process of DNA fingerprinting
  • Complete the DNA fingerprinting lab
  • Explain how genetic engineering is applied in agriculture
  • Cite examples of genetic engineering uses in agriculture

© http://www.sierraclub.org/biotech/report.asp

genetic engineering
Genetic Engineering
  • What is genetic engineering?
      • Also called recombinant DNA technology or gene manipulation. Two major techniques: 1) Genes are engineered into organisms such as microbes, bacteria, for mass-production and 2) insertion of select genes into organisms to improve their genotype
  • Identify a procedure of genetic engineering.
      • 1) Isolate the genes, 2) Recombination, 3) Transformation, 4) Screening, and 5) Induction
gel electrophoresis
Gel Electrophoresis
  • Uses an electric current to separate various fragments of DNA to different lengths on the gel.
  • DNA fragments are attracted to the positive side of the gel
  • The larger fragments migrate slower than the smaller fragments

(c) http://medlib.med.utah.edu/block2/biochem/Formosa/Figures/Lecture6/6-01%20Agarose%20gel.GIF

genetic engineering in agriculture
Genetic Engineering in Agriculture
  • How is genetic engineering applied to agriculture?
      • Crops have been developed that resist insect damage and spoilage. Some species of plants have the ability to kill off weeds surrounding them. Scientists now insert a gene to prolong the shelf life of fruits and vegetables.
  • What are some uses of genetic engineering in agriculture?
      • Black walnut has ability to kill off surrounding weeds in its area. Once this gene is isolated, scientists can apply it to other plants. Tomato has a gene to increase its shelf life.

(c) http://www.isu.edu/pics/treewalk/black-walnut1.gif