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RECONSTRUCTION. 1865-1877. The impact of war in the South Richmond. Charleston Physical destruction of the south. The impact of war in the South. 2. Economic conditions Banks, businesses destroyed by inflation

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the impact of war in the south richmond
The impact of war in the SouthRichmond

Charleston Physical destruction of the south

the impact of war in the south
The impact of war in the South
  • 2. Economic conditions
    • Banks, businesses destroyed by inflation
    • Transportation system destroyed by Sherman's raid and the prosecution of total war in the south
the impact of war in the south1
The impact of war in the South
  • Agriculture
  • - cotton crop not up to pre-1860 levels until after 1870.
  •   - loss of slave labor ($2 billion)

3. Agriculture

- cotton crop not up to pre-1860 levels until after 1870.

  - loss of slave labor ($2 billion)

from slavery to freedom
From Slavery to Freedom

 The confusing nature of emancipation

Emancipation took place unevenly

    -Slaves liberated and then re-enslaved as Union armies marched in and out of specific localities

Resistance of slave owners

The confusing nature of emancipation

  • Emancipation took place unevenly

    -Slaves liberated and then re-enslaved as Union armies marched in and out of specific localities

  • Resistance of slave owners
r esponses to emancipation
Responses to Emancipation
  • Illustrate complexity of the master-slave relationship
  • Some slaves exhibit loyalty to plantation master and resist Union occupation
  • Others joined Union forces in pillaging their master's possessions
wade davis bill 1864
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)

CongressmanHenryW. Davis(R-MD)

SenatorBenjaminWade(R-OH)

slide15

13th Amendment

  • Ratified in December, 1865.
  • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
  • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
republicans in congress strike back
Republicans in Congress strike back
  • The Civil Rights Bill of 1866 (gave blacks basic rights of citizenship and disqualified former Confeds).
congress passes the 14 th amendment in 1866
Congress passes the 14thAmendment in 1866. 
  • Fearing that the Southerners might someday repeal the hated Civil Rights Law, This amendment:  
  • 1- gave civil rights, including citizenship, to the freedmen
  • 2- reduced proportionately the representation of a state in Congress and in the Electoral College if it denied blacks on the ballot
  • 3- disqualified from federal and state offices former Confederates who, as federal officeholders, had once sworn to support the Constitution of the United States
  • 4- guaranteed the federal debt, while the Union assumed all Confederate debts.
slide18

14th Amendment

  • Ratified in July, 1868.
    • Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people.
    • Insure against neo-Confederate political power.
    • Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy.
  • Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
slide19

15th Amendment

  • Ratified in 1870.
  • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
slide21

Black Codes

  • Purpose:
    • Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated.
    • Restore pre-emancipationsystem of race relations.
    • These prevented blacks from voting through “literacy tests” and “poll taxes”
    • Also prevented blacks from serving on juries
  • Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers[tenant farmers].
so what did blacks do
So, what did Blacks do?
  • Migration to cities for jobs in the North
    • Creates conflict with immigrants, especially Irish     
  • "Exodusters"
    • (Black migration west)
slide23

Growing Northern Alarm!

  • Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements.
  • Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons.
  • Revival of southern defiance.

BLACK CODES

slide24

Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle”

The 1866 Bi-Election

  • A referendum on Radical Reconstruction.
  • Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his plan.
  • Republicanswon a 3-1majority in both houses and gained control of every northern state.
slide25

Congress Breaks with the President

  • Congress bars SouthernCongressional delegates.
  • Joint Committee on Reconstruction created.
  • February, 1866  Presidentvetoed the Freedmen’sBureau bill.
  • March, 1866  Johnsonvetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.
  • Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1st in U. S. history!!
slide26

Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)

  • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands.
  • Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen.
  • Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.
slide27

Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes

Plenty to eat and nothing to do.

successes and failures
Successes and Failures
  • Major successes of the Bureau
    • educational advances for Blacks, improved literacy
    • Failures of the Bureau
    • corrupt/land parcels confiscated and sold, labor contracts signed put former slaves in negative position
  • Because it was despised by the President and by Southerners, theFreedmen's Bureau expired in 1872. 
slide30

Congress Breaks with the President

  • Congress bars SouthernCongressional delegates.
  • Joint Committee on Reconstruction created.
  • February, 1866  Presidentvetoed the Freedmen’sBureau bill.
  • March, 1866  Johnsonvetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.
  • Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1st in U. S. history!!
slide31

Reconstruction Acts of 1867

  • Military Reconstruction Act
    • Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.
    • Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.
white resistance to reconstruction the kkk and secret organizations
White Resistance to Reconstruction: The KKK and secret organizations

Secret organizations emerge

  • Ku Klux Klan is most notorious
    • TN 1866 – founded by
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest
    • Intended to strike fear through intimidation
      • often resorts to violence
    • main goal = disfranchisement of blacks
    • angered by the success of black legislators
slide33

Reconstruction Acts of 1867

  • Command of the Army Act
    • The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military.
  • Tenure of Office Act
    • The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval.
      • Designed to protect radicalmembers of Lincoln’s government.
      • A question of the constitutionality of this law.

Edwin Stanton

slide34

President Johnson’s Impeachment

  • Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868.
  • Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction.
  • The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
slide35

The Senate Trial

  • 11 week trial.
  • Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
slide37

The

Grant

Administration

(1868-1876)

slide39

Waving the Bloody Shirt!

Republican “Southern Strategy”

slide41

Grant Administration Scandals

  • Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption.
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal.
  • Whiskey Ring.
  • The “Indian Ring.”
slide42

The Tweed Ring in NYC

William Marcy Tweed (notorious head of Tammany Hall’s political machine)

[Thomas Nast crusading cartoonist/reporter]

slide43

The Election of 1872

  • Rumors of corruption during Grant’s first term discredit Republicans.
  • Horace Greeley runsas a Democrat/LiberalRepublican candidate.
  • Greeley attacked as afool and a crank.
  • Greeley died on November 29, 1872!
slide46
So….
  • Did Reconstruction fail? Why or why not or to what extent? Use the article and the historians mentioned in: “How Radical was Reconstruction?”
slide47

The

Abandonment

of Reconstruction

slide48

Northern Support Wanes

  • “Grantism” & corruption.
  • Panic of 1873 [6-yeardepression].
  • Concern over westwardexpansion and Indian wars.
  • Key monetary issues:
    • should the government retire $432m worth of “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War.
    • should war bonds be paid back in specie orgreenbacks.
slide49

The Panic of 1873

  • It raises “the moneyquestion.”
    • debtors seek inflationarymonetary policy bycontinuing circulation of greenbacks.
    • creditors, intellectuals support hard money.
slide52

The Political Crisis of 1877

  • “Corrupt Bargain”Part II?