Do Now. What were the 4 main causes of World War I?. Goals for today. Review the causes of World War I Explain why World War One was such a brutal war Analyze the impact of World War I on Europe and the Rest of the World
This map shows Africa in 1914 and shows how much land the major nations had taken over.
Ethnic Map of Europe in 1914
The man who took this photo was named Heinrich Hoffman and will later become Hitler’s personal photographer. One night after a dinner party they discussed “Where were you when the great war began” and discovered they were in the same place. They searched his old photos and sure enough, Hoffman caught the young Hitler!
At the dinner was also Hoffman’s personal assistant, a young woman named Eva Braun
Triple Entente Allies
Triple Alliance Central Powers
Ludendorff will become a supporter of Hitler and a member of the Nazi Party before changing his mind. Hindenburg will become President of Germany and will personally give Hitler permission to rule the country.
“Hitler will lead Germany into the abyss”
-Letter from Ludendorff to Hindenburg, 1933
Even with Hindenberg and Ludendorff, Germany had lost the war by 1918. With the collapse of the Second Reich chaos and revolution engulfed Germany and set the stage for the rise of the Nazis.
“This is not a peace treaty. It is a 20 year truce”- Marshall Foch (Supreme Allied Commander)
“If I was a German I would not sign it” –President Woodrow Wilson
After reading this source, how do you think the Germans felt at the end of World War One?
“Through the doors at the end…come four officers of France, Great Britain, America and Italy. And then, isolated and pitiable, come the two Germans, Dr. Muller and Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifying…They keep their eyes fixed away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed on the ceiling. They are deathly pale…There is general tension. They sign. There is general relaxation…We kept our seats while the Germans were conducted like prisoners from the dock.”
(Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919.)
Great Britain, America and France were the three most powerful Allies and they wanted to exert their influence upon the Treaty of Versailles.
Yet they wanted different things.
BUTOverall, Lloyd George did not want to punish Germany too harshly as he did not want Germany seeking revenge in the future
Clemenceau (France)Clemenceau liked the harsh things that were in the Treaty, especially reparations, because they would weaken Germany while helping France to recover. He had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again. He liked the idea of a small German army, and the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland, because he thought that this would protect France from attack in the future. Also, he was pleased that France received Alsace-Lorraine as this had been taken from France by Germany in 1871. In truth though, he wanted the Treaty to be harsher.
What did Clemenceau like and dislike about the Treaty?
The U.S.A. had joined war late (1917) and hadn't suffered as much as the other Allies in terms of human and material costs.
Wilson (USA)Wilson got self-determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe, and a League of Nations, but he was disappointed with the Treaty because few of his ideas were acted upon. Worst of all, when Wilson went back to America, the Senate refused to join the League of Nations, and refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles! In America, there was a growing desire for the government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave Europe to its own devices. Wilson believed that Germany should be punished, but in a way that would lead to European reconciliation (peace) as opposed to revenge (war).
What did Wilson like and dislike about the treaty?
The Treaty of Versailles
What would members of the public in Allied countries think of the Germans in 1918?
What does this source tell you about the British public’s feelings towards Germany in 1918?
“The Germans, if this government is elected, are going to pay every penny; they are going to be squeezed, as a lemon is squeezed, until the pips squeak.”
(Sir Eric Geddes, December 1918)
Sir Eric Geddes was Minister of Munitions in Britain, Controller of the Navy and First Lord of the Admiralty at different points during The First World War.
Does this information help you to understand why so many people wanted revenge after the war?
Around 8 million people had been killed
The cost of the war was roughly 36 Billion Dollars
The destruction of land, homes, farms and factories was huge
Millions more people died after the war due to famine and disease
“In France and Belgium, where most of the war was fought, 300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles of railway, 2,000 breweries and 112 coal mines were destroyed…In some ways, mankind has never recovered from the horrors of the First World War.”
John D. Clare, First World War (1994)
“The British General Election in December 1918 was flooded by the belief that the Kaiser should be hanged, that Germany should pay up….Few realised the harmful effects of uniformed and aggressive public opinion which had been aroused by years of war propaganda, and whipped up by the popular press…”
Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988.
Discuss how difficult must it have been for the Allies to get the right balance between punishment and creating a lasting peace?
What is this cartoon conveying?
Did you know?
The French used African troops to occupy the Rhineland. This led to a generation of ½ African, ½ German children. The Nazis referred to them as “The Rhineland Bastards'”
Think back to Chapter One, how big was the German Army in 1914? What effect can this term have on a nations economy?
Germany had to accept total responsibility for starting the World War One. This was called the “War Guilt Clause”.
Treaty Term Activity:
Look at each of the terms on the next page and answer the following 2 questions.
Afterward analyze the following statement:
“The Treaty of Versailles created Adolf Hitler”
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?
To what extent is self-determination reflected in your differences?
The German government publicly denounced the treaty, and for the first time all Germans of every social class and political party were united in against it. But refusal to sign the treaty would mean continuing the war, something Germany couldn’t do.
Many Germans also thought the financial penalties that the treaty imposed upon their country and her people to be immoral and unjust.
The signing of this treaty was a blow to the new Republic from which it never fully recovered. For a majority of people their faith in democracy was destroyed.