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Do Now. What were the 4 main causes of World War I?. Goals for today. Review the causes of World War I Explain why World War One was such a brutal war Analyze the impact of World War I on Europe and the Rest of the World

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do now
Do Now
  • What were the 4 main causes of World War I?
goals for today
Goals for today
  • Review the causes of World War I
  • Explain why World War One was such a brutal war
  • Analyze the impact of World War I on Europe and the Rest of the World
  • Compare and Contrast the different view points that went into creating the Treaty of Versailles
  • Evaluate the successes and failures of the Treaty
main causes of wwi
MAIN Causes of WWI
  • Militarism – growth of militaries
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism – pride in your country
militarism
Militarism
  • The build up of armies, navies and weaponry
  • Imperialist nations had sparked an arms race to defend their holdings and possibly gain or regain territory.
alliances
Alliances
  • Created to protect national security and provide aide in the event of an attack.
imperialism
Imperialism
  • Dividing up areas of the world among the more powerful countries
  • European powers competed with each other for raw materials and colonies
slide7

Imperialism

This map shows Africa in 1914 and shows how much land the major nations had taken over.

BRITAIN

FRANCE

GERMANY

ITALY

BELGIUM

nationalism
Nationalism
  • Nations who wanted back land that had natives living there (France and Russia)
  • Areas that wanted to gain national independence from countries that had engulfed their culture (Czechs and Poles)
nationalism1
Nationalism

Ethnic Map of Europe in 1914

europe is a powder keg
Europe is a Powder Keg!
  • One spark would start a war!
assassination
Assassination!
  • Sarajevo; June 28,1914
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife shot
  • “Black Hand”
    • Gavrilo Princip
the black hand
The Black Hand
  • Serbian terrorist organization
  • Sent a small group of teenage operatives to assassinate the Archduke!
world war i timeline
World War I Timeline
  • Austria-Hungry declares war on Serbia
  • Germany backs Austria-Hungry
  • Russia backs Serbia – declares war on Germany
  • Russia and France have a secret Alliance, France wants revenge over the Franco-Prussian War – Declares war on Germany
  • Germany invades Belgium – England Decalres war on Germany
slide17

How did they find this photo?

The man who took this photo was named Heinrich Hoffman and will later become Hitler’s personal photographer. One night after a dinner party they discussed “Where were you when the great war began” and discovered they were in the same place. They searched his old photos and sure enough, Hoffman caught the young Hitler!

At the dinner was also Hoffman’s personal assistant, a young woman named Eva Braun

world war i
World War I
  • During World War I Germany was forced to fight the Russians in the east and the combined forces of France, Britain, and later the United States in the west. At first the German population was tremendously in favor of the conflict. On the next page is a crowd in Munich when war was declared. See the man circled..guess who he is.
alliances1
Alliances

Triple Entente  Allies

alliances2
Alliances

Triple Alliance  Central Powers

world war i1
World War I
  • Everyone thought war would end in a week
  • Instead had a stalemate – neither side could gain an advantage
slide22
Trench Warfare
    • “No Mans Land”
slide23
As time went on, the war began to go bad for Germany. Two generals, Paul Von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff took control of the army and also ran the government. They both became national heroes in Germany by turning the conflict around in Germany’s favor.
  • Both of these men will later become instrumental in the rise of Adolf Hitler to power.
slide24

Ludendorff will become a supporter of Hitler and a member of the Nazi Party before changing his mind. Hindenburg will become President of Germany and will personally give Hitler permission to rule the country.

“Hitler will lead Germany into the abyss”

-Letter from Ludendorff to Hindenburg, 1933

slide25

Even with Hindenberg and Ludendorff, Germany had lost the war by 1918. With the collapse of the Second Reich chaos and revolution engulfed Germany and set the stage for the rise of the Nazis.

  • You might think the people would blame Hindenburg and Ludendorff for the loss of the war…after all they were in power, but you would be totally wrong. We will learn who the Germans blamed in the next chapter.
the treaty of versailles the peace treaty that led to hitler

The Treaty of VersaillesThe “Peace” Treaty that led to Hitler

“This is not a peace treaty. It is a 20 year truce”- Marshall Foch (Supreme Allied Commander)

“If I was a German I would not sign it” –President Woodrow Wilson

slide27

Lesson Objectives

Find out:

  • What members of the public in allied countries thought of the Germans in 1918.
  • The terms of the Treaty of Versailles
  • What the German people thought of the Treaty of Versailles.
slide28

After reading this source, how do you think the Germans felt at the end of World War One?

“Through the doors at the end…come four officers of France, Great Britain, America and Italy. And then, isolated and pitiable, come the two Germans, Dr. Muller and Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifying…They keep their eyes fixed away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed on the ceiling. They are deathly pale…There is general tension. They sign. There is general relaxation…We kept our seats while the Germans were conducted like prisoners from the dock.”

(Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919.)

Peace

slide30

Great Britain, America and France were the three most powerful Allies and they wanted to exert their influence upon the Treaty of Versailles.

Yet they wanted different things.

slide31

David Lloyd George (UK)

  • Germany to be justly punished, but not too harshly
  • Germany to lose its navy and colonies as these were a threat to Britain's own navy and empire
  • Germany and Britain to become trading partners

BUTOverall, Lloyd George did not want to punish Germany too harshly as he did not want Germany seeking revenge in the future

slide32

Clemenceau (France)Clemenceau liked the harsh things that were in the Treaty, especially reparations, because they would weaken Germany while helping France to recover. He had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again. He liked the idea of a small German army, and the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland, because he thought that this would protect France from attack in the future. Also, he was pleased that France received Alsace-Lorraine as this had been taken from France by Germany in 1871. In truth though, he wanted the Treaty to be harsher.

What did Clemenceau like and dislike about the Treaty?

slide33

Wilson (USA)

  • a better and more peaceful world
  • a League of Nations that would help and support each other and help to promote world peace
  • the right to self-determination. The right to decide which country you wish to be governed by

The U.S.A. had joined war late (1917) and hadn't suffered as much as the other Allies in terms of human and material costs.

slide34

Wilson (USA)Wilson got self-determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe, and a League of Nations, but he was disappointed with the Treaty because few of his ideas were acted upon. Worst of all, when Wilson went back to America, the Senate refused to join the League of Nations, and refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles! In America, there was a growing desire for the government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave Europe to its own devices. Wilson believed that Germany should be punished, but in a way that would lead to European reconciliation (peace) as opposed to revenge (war).

What did Wilson like and dislike about the treaty?

slide35

The terms of

The Treaty of Versailles

What would members of the public in Allied countries think of the Germans in 1918?

slide36

What does this source tell you about the British public’s feelings towards Germany in 1918?

“The Germans, if this government is elected, are going to pay every penny; they are going to be squeezed, as a lemon is squeezed, until the pips squeak.”

(Sir Eric Geddes, December 1918)

Sir Eric Geddes was Minister of Munitions in Britain, Controller of the Navy and First Lord of the Admiralty at different points during The First World War.

slide37

Does this information help you to understand why so many people wanted revenge after the war?

Around 8 million people had been killed

The cost of the war was roughly 36 Billion Dollars

The destruction of land, homes, farms and factories was huge

Millions more people died after the war due to famine and disease

“In France and Belgium, where most of the war was fought, 300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles of railway, 2,000 breweries and 112 coal mines were destroyed…In some ways, mankind has never recovered from the horrors of the First World War.”

John D. Clare, First World War (1994)

slide38

“The British General Election in December 1918 was flooded by the belief that the Kaiser should be hanged, that Germany should pay up….Few realised the harmful effects of uniformed and aggressive public opinion which had been aroused by years of war propaganda, and whipped up by the popular press…”

Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988.

Discuss how difficult must it have been for the Allies to get the right balance between punishment and creating a lasting peace?

slide39

The Main Allied Powers: Can you name them by their flags?

  • World War One ended when Germany and the allies signed the Treaty of Versailles. The victorious nations, especially France, wanted to ensure that Germany would never be able to fight another world war. Their aim was to devastate Germany militarily and economically. The Germans were excluded from the creation of the treaty and were even barred from discussing it with the allies.
  • On the following pages we will discuss the terms of the Treaty.

What is this cartoon conveying?

germany loses territory
Germany Loses Territory
  • Germany lost 1/8 of her land.
  • This also accounts for six million of her people.
  • Which territorial loss is the most devastating to Germany? Why?
  • What is that land called?
slide41

An Allied Army was to occupy the Rhineland for a period of 15 years.

  • No German troops were to be allowed into the occupation zone.

Did you know?

The French used African troops to occupy the Rhineland. This led to a generation of ½ African, ½ German children. The Nazis referred to them as “The Rhineland Bastards'”

  • How would you feel if foreign troops occupied your country?
the military
The Military

Think back to Chapter One, how big was the German Army in 1914? What effect can this term have on a nations economy?

  • The army was limited to 100,000 men. Tanks and planes were not allowed.
slide43

Germany had to accept total responsibility for starting the World War One. This was called the “War Guilt Clause”.

  • As a consequence Germany had to pay reparations to the allies totaling 132 Billion Gold Marks. That’s over 450 Billion US dollars in today’s money!

Treaty Term Activity:

Look at each of the terms on the next page and answer the following 2 questions.

Afterward analyze the following statement:

“The Treaty of Versailles created Adolf Hitler”

Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?

slide44

What differences do you see in the 2 maps?

To what extent is self-determination reflected in your differences?

slide46

Recap...

The German government publicly denounced the treaty, and for the first time all Germans of every social class and political party were united in against it. But refusal to sign the treaty would mean continuing the war, something Germany couldn’t do.

Many Germans also thought the financial penalties that the treaty imposed upon their country and her people to be immoral and unjust.

The signing of this treaty was a blow to the new Republic from which it never fully recovered. For a majority of people their faith in democracy was destroyed.

slide47

Quick Test

  • 1. What was the peace treaty called?
  • 2. What was the treaty designed to do?
  • 3. Why was the loss of the “Polish Corridor” so devastating to Germany?
  • 4. What was the Rhineland?
  • 5. How many soldiers were the German army allowed to retain under the treaty?
slide48

6. How much were the Germans supposed to pay the Allies in reparations?

  • 7. What did the “War Guilt Clause” mean?
  • 8. What would happen if the Germans refused to sign the treaty?
  • 9. If you were a German would you be opposed or for this treaty?