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Middle Colonies “The Restoration Colonies”. Ethnically diverse group. New Era in Colonization Why are the Middle Colonies called the Restoration Colonies?. Parliament wins the Civil war in England So…Oliver Cromwell creates a new government and throws out the King = NO MORE KING But then…

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new era in colonization why are the middle colonies called the restoration colonies
New Era in ColonizationWhy are the Middle Colonies called the Restoration Colonies?
  • Parliament wins the Civil war in England
  • So…Oliver Cromwell creates a new government and throws out the King = NO MORE KING

But then…

“The Restoration”

  • Cromwell dies and the new parliament invites King Charles’s son (Charles II) to be king again
    • Repays debts by giving away proprietary colonies
    • Grants of land in the new world that were given to loyal friends
      • NY, NJ, Carolina, and PA




The Middle Colonies




why did william penn settle in pennsylvania
Why did William Penn settle in Pennsylvania?
  • 1640’s England had a civil war b/w parliament and King
  • William Penn’s father was on the parliaments side but secretly gave money to King Charles I of England
  • After the war, Admiral Penn (William Penn’s father) was owed a lot of money
  • Admiral Penn’s son, William was a problem
  • William Penn joined a religious group called the Quakers
    • Wrote dozens of books and pamphlets criticizing the English church
    • Like other Quakers, was jailed for his beliefs
why did william penn settle in pennsylvania6
Why did William Penn settle in Pennsylvania?
  • When William’s father died, the King still owed him a lot of money
  • Even though William clashed with England they still repaid his family
  • William Penn was given a large amt. of land in N. America
    • named this area Pennsylvania or “Penn’s Woods”
    • Became a safe-haven for all Quakers

William Penn

  • Aristocratic Englishman.
  • 1660 – attracted tothe Quaker faith.
  • Embraced Quakerismafter military service.
  • 1681  he received agrant from king toestablish a colony.
    • This settled a debt the king owed his father.
    • Named Pennsylvania [“Penn’s Woodland”].
  • He sent out paid agents and advertised for settlers  his pamphlets were pretty honest.
    • Liberal land policy attracted many immigrants.

The Quakers

  • Called Quakers because they were suppose to “quake” “at the name of the Lord”.
  • They offended people the most England.
    • Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England.
    • Had not ministers and clergy were not paid
    • Believe in equality men and WOMEN!
    • People could get up and talk in the middle of church
    • Wouldn’t take oaths.
    • Pacifists- did not want to make or participate in war
    • Were tolerant of ALL religions
    • Believed all were children of God refused to treat the upper classes with deference.
      • Keep hats on.
      • Addressed them as commoners

both religious and secular leaders


What does this tell you about the relationships Quakers had with Natives?

Penn & Native Americans

  • Bought [didn’t simply take] land from Indians.
  • Quakers went among the Indians unarmed.
  • BUT…….. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA
    • Treated native peoples poorly.
    • This undermined the actions of the Quakers!

Government of Pennsylvania

  • Representative assembly elected by landowners.
  • No tax-supported church.
  • Freedom of worship guaranteed to all.
  • Catholic & Jews could worship freely but could NOT vote or hold
  • Death penalty only for treason & murder.
    • Compared to 200 capital crimes in England!

Pennsylvanian Society

  • Tolerated ALL religions and ALL people
  • Attracted many different people
    • Religious misfits from other colonies.
    • Many different ethnic groups.
  • No provision for military defense.
  • No restrictions on immigration.
  • No slavery!!
  • “Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws]  against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc.

Sumptuary means to intend to regulate personal habits on moral or religious grounds.

A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom!!


How New Netherlands became

New York

- (Middle) -

Dutch were 1st colonists of the middle colonies


Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands

  • 1600s  Golden Age of Dutch history.
    • Major commercial and naval power.
    • Challenging England on the seas.
      • 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars
    • Major colonial power
      • [mainly in the East Indies].

Henry Hudson’s Voyages

Henry Hudson established New World claims for the Dutch in what would become the New York area, and for the English in northern Canada.


New Netherlands (NY)

  • New Netherlands  founded in the Hudson River area (1623-1624)
    • Established by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade.
      • Company wouldn’t pay much attention to the colony.
    • Manhattan [New Amsterdam]
      • Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000) acre.
new netherlands
New Netherlands
  • New Netherland covered parts of what are now the states of MD, DE, PN , NJ, NY, CN, and RI (middle colonies)
  • French and English interests in the northern part lead to the adjustment of the border
  • Capital was New Amsterdam

New Amsterdam Harbor, 1639

Company town run in interests of the stockholders.

No interest in religious toleration, free speech, or democracy.

Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic (self-appointed).

Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church [including Quakers] were persecuted.

Local assembly with limited power to make laws established after repeated protests by colonists.


New Amsterdam, 1660 (NY)

  • Characteristics of New Amsterdam:
    • Aristocratic  patroonships [feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them].
    • Cosmopolitan  diverse population with many different languages.

New York

Manors &

Land Grants


english takeover of new amsterdam
New York-

King Charles II ordered the takeover of New Amsterdam in 1664.

A small English fleet took the city without a fight from the Dutch governor, Peter Stuyvesant.

The colony became a proprietary colony under the king’s brother (James, Duke of York).

The colony and city were renamed “New York” in honor of the Duke.

English Takeover of New Amsterdam

Swedes in New Netherlands (NY)

  • Mid-1600s  Sweden in Golden Age settled small, under-funded colony [called “New Sweden”] near New Netherland.
  • 1655  Dutch under director-general Peter Stuyvesantattack New Sweden.
    • Main fort fell after bloodless siege.
    • New Sweden absorbed into New Netherland.

New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony

What is a royal colony?

Colony under direct control of the king

  • Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the area!]
  • 1664  English soldiers arrived.
    • Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses.
    • Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot.
  • Renamed “New York”
    • England gained strategic harbor between her northern & southern colonies.
    • England now controlled the Atlantic coast!

Dutch Residue in New York

Early 20c Dutch Revival Building in NYC.

New York Cityseal.

Names  Harlem, Brooklyn

Architecture  gambrel roof

Customs  Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf].


New Jersey



New Jersey — PA’s Neighbor

  • 1664  aristocratic proprietors rcvd. the area from the Duke of York.
  • Many New Englanders [because of worn out soil] moved to NJ.
    • 1674  West NJ sold to Quakers.
    • East NJ eventually acquired by Quakers.
  • 1702  E & W NJ combined into NJ and created one colony.




Delaware — PA’s Neighbor

Named after Lord De La Warr [harsh military governor of VA in 1610].

Closely associated with Penn’s colony.

Very diverse group of people (religiously and culturally)

1703  granted its own assembly.

Remained under the control of PA until the American Revolution.

De La Warr convinced the settlers of Jamestown not to give up and go back to England after the Powhatan War.


Settling the Middle [or “Restoration”] Colonies

Who settled in the Middle Colonies?

Dutch and English

summarizing the middle colonies
Summarizing the Middle Colonies
  • 1str colonists were Dutch
  • Goals was to farm and make money
  • When the English took “New Amsterdam” from the Dutch they called it NY
  • Quakers seek religious freedom settled PN
  • Land was more fertile than in New England and promoted farming of cash crops: corn, wheat, and fruit
  • Abundance of rivers allowed for transportation of goods b/w colonies (Hudson River)
  • Mills to grind grains developed and supported local economies
  • Relationships with Native Americans were better in these colonies than in others
  • Was the most ethically diverse group