The Middle Colonies Ch. 2.5
Objectives • Explain how Dutch New Netherland became English New York. • Describe William Penn’s relationship with Indians in Pennsylvania. • Compare and contrast the Pennsylvania Colony to other colonies.
Key Parts • Dutch Establish New Netherland • New Sweden Is Founded • The English Conquest • William Penn Founds Pennsylvania • Diversity In the Middle Colonies
Read Section 2.5 • Take 15 min to read over the section. • As you read compare and contrast the push and pull factor. • Also explain some of the Christian values that William Penn expresses in this section.
Dutch Establish New Netherland • In 1609 Dutch merchants sent ships across the Atlantic into the Hudson River to trade for furs with the Indians. • They establish a permanent settlement at Fort Nassau. (later called fort orange) • To guard the mouth of the river the Dutch built New Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan Island in 1625
Cont. • New Amsterdam had the finest harbor on the Atlantic coast. • Largest town in the colony’s thus far and a major seaport. • Also they constructed government headquarters. • The Dutch did not send out any missionary effort to convert Indians to Christianity like the English, French and Spanish.
Push and Pull Factors • Despite an appealing location and religious tolerance the Dutch colony attracted few immigrants. • The Dutch did not have any real push factors due to the fact they were used to and able to have a high standard of living in their country. • The colonies did not offer much pull factor to the Dutch because they didn’t have very much religious persecution and hundreds of roaming poor people.
Sweden Is Founded • In 1683 traders founded New Sweden on the lower Delaware River. • This was a dual economy with fur and grain goods. • Some of the colonists were Swedes but most were from Finland under Swedish rule. • Expanded to both sides of the Delaware River but were not able to hold this land with only 500 colonist. • They were forced to surrender by a Dutch governor with seven warships.
English Conquest • In 1664 the Dutch took over New Netherland and called it New York after the Duke of York. • This was a proprietary colony. • New Amsterdam became the city of New York and Fort Orange became Albany. • The Duke of York also proclaimed the land between the Hudson and Delaware rivers as a distinct new colony called New Jersey, primarily made up of Puritans, Scots and Quakers.
William Penn Founds Pennsylvania • It began as a debt paid to William Penn by King Charles II. • William Penn was a very wealthy Quaker, which is atypical to what is considered a normal Quaker. • Quakers sought out the “inner light” to understand the Bible. They also considered women spiritually equal to men.
Cont. • In 1680 the king granted Penn the land west of the Delaware River as the colony of Pennsylvania. (Penn’s Woods) • In 1682 Penn arrived with 2000 colonists to his new capital of Philadelphia. • By 1700 the colonist reached 17,000 due to the fertile land and navigable river. • Unlike other colonial leaders, Penn treated the Native Americans with respect and paid them for the land that he took.
Diversity in the Middle Colonies • The middle colonies were the most ethnically diverse out of all the colonies. • There was no one single ethnic group or specific religious denomination in most all of the middle colonies. • This diversity violated traditional belief that political order depended on ethnic and religious uniformity.