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Chapter 3. Corporations: Special Situations. The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2). Determining DPGR for the Domestic Production Activities Deduction Mocha, Inc., produces and sells its ice cream to food stores and restaurants.

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Corporations: Special Situations

The big picture slide 1 of 2
The Big Picture (slide 1 of 2)

Determining DPGR for the Domestic Production Activities Deduction

Mocha, Inc., produces and sells its ice cream to food stores and restaurants.

Mocha also operates snack shops next to its facilities where it sells ice cream, coffee, and other snacks to the general public.

Mocha has gross receipts of $42 million from the wholesale sale of its ice cream and $5 million from the operation of the snack shops.

What receipts are considered to be domestic production gross receipts (DPGR) for the domestic production activities deduction (DPAD)?

What planning tip might you give to Mocha?

Read the chapter and formulate your response.

The big picture slide 2 of 2
The Big Picture (slide 2 of 2)

Who Pays the alternative minimum tax (AMT)?

Carmine and Taupe Corps are unrelated, calendar year C corps formed on 01/01/2010.

Their gross receipts for the first three years of operations are as follows:

Which corporation, if either, is exempt from the AMT and for which years (i.e., 2010–2011)?

Read the chapter and formulate your response.

Domestic production activities deduction slide 1 of 5
Domestic Production Activities Deduction (slide 1 of 5)

The domestic production activities deduction (DPAD) is a special deduction that is available for organizations with domestic production activities

Includes those in manufacturing, film production, construction, print media, engineering, and power generation

Domestic production activities deduction slide 2 of 5
Domestic Production Activities Deduction (slide 2 of 5)

  • Taxpayers eligible for this deduction include:

    • Individuals, partnerships, S corporations, C corporations, cooperatives, estates, and trusts

      • For a pass-through entity (e.g., partnerships, S corporations), the deduction flows through to the individual owners

      • For sole proprietors, a deduction for AGI results

      • For C corporations, the deduction is included with other expenses in computing corporate taxable income

Domestic production activities deduction slide 3 of 5
Domestic Production Activities Deduction (slide 3 of 5)

Components of the Deduction

The domestic production activities deduction (DPAD) is based on the following formula

Domestic production activities deduction slide 4 of 5
Domestic Production Activities Deduction (slide 4 of 5)

  • Qualified production activities income (QPAI) is the excess of domestic production gross receipts over:

    • Cost of goods sold (CGS)

    • Direct costs

    • Allocable indirect costs

Domestic production activities deduction slide 5 of 5
Domestic Production Activities Deduction (slide 5 of 5)

  • Domestic production gross receipts (DPGR) include receipts from:

    • Lease, rental, license, sale, exchange, or other disposition of qualified production property (QPP) that was manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted in the U.S.

    • Qualified films largely created in the U.S.

    • Production of electricity, natural gas, or potable water

    • Construction performed in the U.S.

    • Engineering and architectural services for domestic construction

Disallowed production activities
Disallowed Production Activities

DPGR does not include gross receipts from the sale of food & beverages prepared by a taxpayer at a retail establishment or distribution of electricity, natural gas, or potable water

The big picture example 20 dpgd 5 de minimis rule
The Big Picture – Example 20DPGD – 5% De Minimis Rule

Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 3–1.

Suppose that Mocha has the following sales:

$42 million from the wholesale sale of its ice cream, and

Only $2 million from the snack shops next to its facilities where it sells ice cream to the general public.

The full $44 million is DPGR

The $2 million falls under the de minimis safe-harbor exception

$2 million is less than 5% of $44 million ($42 million + $2 million).

Alternative minimum tax slide 1 of 3
Alternative Minimum Tax (slide 1 of 3)

  • Designed to ensure that corporations with substantial economic income pay at least a minimum amount of federal taxes

  • Essentially, a separate tax system with a quasi-flat tax rate applied to a corporation’s economic income

Alternative minimum tax slide 2 of 3
Alternative Minimum Tax (slide 2 of 3)

  • If tentative alternative minimum tax > regular corporate income tax, corporation must pay regular tax plus the excess, the alternative minimum tax (AMT)

  • In general, a corp. is likely to pay AMT for one or more of three reasons:

    • A high level of investment in assets such as equipment and structures

    • Low taxable income due to a cyclical downturn, strong international competition, a low-margin industry, or other factors

    • Investment at low real interest rates, which increases the company’s deductions for depreciation relative to those for interest payments.

Alternative minimum tax slide 3 of 3
Alternative Minimum Tax (slide 3 of 3)

  • The 20% AMT applicable to corporations is similar to the AMT applicable to individuals

    • Many of the adjustments and tax preference items necessary to arrive at alternative minimum taxable income (AMTI) are the same

    • The rates and exemptions are different, but the objective is identical

      • Forces taxpayers that are more profitable than their taxable income reflects to pay additional income taxes

Small corporation exemption slide 1 of 2
Small Corporation Exemption (slide 1 of 2)

For tax years beginning after 1997, many small corporations are not subject to AMT

A corporation initially qualifies as a small corporation in its first tax year in existence regardless of its gross receipts.

After the initial year, the exemption applies if the corp. meets two requirements

Small corporation exemption slide 2 of 2
Small Corporation Exemption (slide 2 of 2)

The exemption applies if these 2 requirements are met:

The corp. qualified as a small corp. exempt from the AMT for all prior years beginning after 1997

Ave. annual gross receipts for the 3 year tax period ending before its tax year beginning in 2012 ≤ $7.5 million

$5 million if the corp. has only one prior year

Thus, the $5 million rule only applies in testing for the second year of a new corporation’s life

So if a corporation had gross receipts of $5 million or less its first year, the second year is exempt

The big picture example 25 small corporation exemption
The Big Picture – Example 25Small Corporation Exemption

Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 3–1.

Both Carmine and Taupe are safe for 2010

The first-year rule applies (gross receipts are irrelevant)

In the second year (2011)

Carmine is safe under the $5 million exemption

Taupe fails the $5 million test because of $6 million gross receipts in the first year (2010)

For 2012

Carmine still is safe because the $6 million average is under $7.5 million

[($4 million + $8 million)/2]

Taupe, of course, will never qualify for the small corp. exemption again after failing in 2011

The big picture example 26 small corporation exemption
The Big Picture – Example 26Small Corporation Exemption

Return to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 3–1.

Carmine Corp. has the following gross receipts

Gross Receipts Year

$ 4 million 2010

$ 8 million 2011

$10 million 2012

What amount of gross receipts for 2013 would eliminate Carmine from the small corporation exemption in 2014?

If Carmine Corporation has more than $4.5 million of gross receipts in 2013, the company could not be a small corporation in 2014

[($8 million + $10 million + $4.5 million)/3 = $7.5 million].

Amt adjustments slide 1 of 2
AMT Adjustments (slide 1 of 2)

  • The starting point for computing AMTI is taxable income before any NOL deduction

    • Certain adjustments must be made to this amount

  • Tax preference items are always additions to taxable income

  • AMT adjustments may either positive or negative

    • Positive adjustments result from timing differences

      • Added to taxable income in computing AMTI

    • When AMT adjustments reverse, they are deducted from taxable income to arrive at AMTI

Amt adjustments slide 2 of 2
AMT Adjustments (slide 2 of 2)

  • The deduction for domestic manufacturing activities (DPAD) is available for AMT purposes

    • DPAD for AMT is limited to the smaller of qualified production income as determined for the regular income tax or for AMTI before the manufacturing deduction

Adjustments for amt slide 1 of 2
Adjustments for AMT (slide 1 of 2)

  • A portion of depreciation on property placed in service after 1986

  • Difference between gain (loss) on sale of property for regular tax and AMT purposes

  • Passive activity losses of certain closely held corporations and personal service corporations

  • Mining exploration and development costs in excess of allowed AMT 10 year amortization

Adjustments for amt slide 2 of 2
Adjustments for AMT (slide 2 of 2)

  • Difference between percentage of completion and completed contract income

  • Amortization claimed on certified pollution control facilities

  • Difference between installment gain and total gain on certain dealer sales

  • A portion of the difference between “ACE” and unadjusted AMTI

Tax preference items
Tax Preference Items

  • Accelerated depreciation on real property in excess of straight-line for property placed in service before 1987

  • Tax-exempt interest on “private activity bonds”

    • Interest on such bonds issued in 2009 and 2010 is not treated as a tax preference

  • Percentage depletion in excess of the adjusted basis of property

  • Certain intangible drilling costs for “integrated oil companies”

Ace adjustment slide 1 of 3
ACE Adjustment (slide 1 of 3)

  • Ace adjustment = 75% of difference between unadjusted AMTI and ACE

    • Can be positive or negative

    • Negative adjustment is limited to aggregate positive adjustments less previous negative adjustments

Ace adjustment slide 2 of 3
ACE Adjustment (slide 2 of 3)

  • Starting point for determining ACE is unadjusted AMTI

    • Unadjusted AMTI is defined as regular taxable income after AMT adjustments and tax preferences (other than the NOL and ACE adjustments)

Ace adjustment slide 3 of 3
ACE Adjustment (slide 3 of 3)

  • AMTI is adjusted to arrive at ACE

    • These adjustments include:

      • Exclusion items—Income items that will never be included in regular taxable income or AMTI

      • Disallowed items – e.g., dividends received deduction of 70% (less than 20% ownership)

      • Other adjustments items including, for example, intangible drilling costs, circulation expenditures, organization expense amortization, LIFO inventory adjustments, installment sales, other items

Impact of certain transactions on ace
Impact of CertainTransactions on ACE


  • Exemption amount for a corp = $40,000

    • Reduced by 25% of excess of AMTI over $150,000

    • Exemption is totally phased-out when AMTI reaches $310,000

Minimum tax credit slide 1 of 2
Minimum Tax Credit (slide 1 of 2)

  • AMT paid in one year can be used as a credit against future regular tax liability that exceeds its tentative minimum tax

    • Indefinite carryforward

    • Cannot be carried back

    • Cannot offset any future minimum tax liability

Minimum tax credit slide 2 of 2
Minimum Tax Credit (slide 2 of 2)

  • Small corporations (no longer subject to AMT) with unused minimum tax credits after 1997 may use them against regular tax liability

  • Limit = regular tax – [25% × (regular tax – $25,000)]

Amt example slide 1 of 4

Moreland Co. has the following income, etc. in 2012:

Taxable income $100,000

Depreciation adjustment 18,000

Installment gain (not on inventory sale) 80,000

Federal income tax provision on

financial stmts. 75,000

Penalties and fines 2,000

Private activity bond interest income

(issued 2008) 25,000

Other tax-exempt interest 20,000

The depreciation adjustment is an AMT adjustment and the private activity bond interest is a tax preference for AMTI.

AMT Example (slide 1 of 4)

Amt example slide 2 of 4

Calculation of AMTI before ACE:

Taxable income $100,000

Plus: private activity bond income 25,000

Plus: depreciation adjustment 18,000

AMTI $143,000

AMT Example (slide 2 of 4)

Amt example slide 3 of 4

Calculation of ACE Adjustment:

AMTI before ACE $143,000

Plus: deferred installment gain 80,000

Plus: other tax-exempt income 20,000

Adjusted current earnings $243,000

Less: AMTI 143,000

Base amount for Ace Adjustment $100,000

Times rate: 75%

ACE Adjustment (positive) $75,000

AMT Example (slide 3 of 4)

Amt example slide 4 of 4

Calculation of AMT:

AMTI before ACE $143,000

Plus: ACE Adjustment 75,000

AMTI $218,000

Less: Exemption 23,000

Tentative minimum tax base $195,000

20% rate × 20%

Tentative minimum tax $ 39,000

Less: regular tax (22,250)

AMT(TMT-Regular tax) $ 16,750

Total cash paid = Regular tax + AMT = $ 39,000

AMT Example (slide 4 of 4)

Accumulated earnings tax slide 1 of 5
Accumulated Earnings Tax(slide 1 of 5)

  • Penalty tax designed to discourage the retention of corporate earnings unrelated to the business needs of the company

Accumulated earnings tax slide 2 of 5
Accumulated Earnings Tax(slide 2 of 5)

  • Tax of 15% is imposed on accumulated taxable income (ATI), determined as follows:

  • ATI = Taxable income ± Adjustments - Dividends paid - Accumulated earnings credit

  • Adjustments to taxable income generally pertain to a corporation’s ability to pay a dividend

    • Thus, deductions include the corporate income tax and excess charitable contributions, while additions include the NOL and dividends received deductions

Accumulated earnings tax slide 3 of 5
Accumulated Earnings Tax(slide 3 of 5)

  • An accumulated earnings credit is allowed even when accumulations are beyond reasonable business needs

Accumulated earnings tax slide 4 of 5
Accumulated Earnings Tax(slide 4 of 5)

  • The accumulated earnings credit is the greater of:

    • Current E&P needed to meet “reasonable needs” of the business, or

    • Amount by which $250,000 ($150,000 for service companies) exceeds Accumulated E&P as of close of preceding tax year (the minimum credit)

Accumulated earnings tax reasonable needs of the business slide 5 of 5

Legitimate reasons

Business expansion

Capital asset replacement

Working capital needs

Product liability loss

Loans to suppliers or customers

Invalid Reasons

Loans to shareholders

Unrealistic contingencies

Investment in unrelated business assets

Accumulated Earnings Tax -Reasonable Needs Of The Business (slide 5 of 5)

Personal holding company tax
Personal Holding Company Tax

  • Personal Holding Company (PHC) tax is designed to discourage sheltering of certain types of investment income in corporations

    • Like the accumulated earnings tax, the purpose is to force the distribution of corporate earnings to shareholders

Definition of phc
Definition of PHC

  • A company is a PHC if:

    • More than 50% of the value of stock is owned by 5 or fewer individuals during the last half of the year

      • Broad constructive ownership rules apply in determining stock ownership

    • 60% or more of gross income (as adjusted) must consist of personal holding company income (PHCI)

      • Examples are dividends, interest, rents, royalties, and certain personal service income

      • Rents or royalties may be excluded if they are significant in amount (i.e., comprise more than 50% of the adjusted gross income)

Calculation of phc tax
Calculation of PHC Tax

  • Once classified as a PHC, the tax base must be calculated

    • Penalty tax rate = 15%

    • Tax base is undistributed Personal Holding Company income (UPHC income)

      • Amount is taxable income plus or minus certain adjustments, minus the dividends paid deduction

Dividends paid
Dividends Paid

  • Dividend payments reduce both ATI and undistributed PHCI

    • As these are the bases on which the § 531 tax or the § 541 tax is imposed, either tax can be completely avoided by paying sufficient dividends

Refocus on the big picture slide 1 of 3
Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 1 of 3)

Determining DPGR for the DPAD

The $42 million gross receipts from the wholesale sale of Mocha’s ice cream are considered DPGR.

However, the de minimis safe-harbor 5% exception does not apply to include the gross receipts from the snack shops

$5 million ÷ $47 million = 10.6%.

Refocus on the big picture slide 2 of 3
Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 2 of 3)

The sales from the snack shops could qualify as DPGR if Mocha were to restrict snack shop sales.

For example, keeping snack sales at around $2.2 million would satisfy the 5 % exception.

Thus, Mocha will have to decide whether the 9% DPAD is worth forgoing the profit on the snack sales.

Keep in mind that the DPAD is allowed for the AMT.

Refocus on the big picture slide 3 of 3
Refocus On The Big Picture (slide 3 of 3)

Who Pays the AMT?

Refer back to the facts of The Big Picture on p. 3-1.

There was poor planning or a lack of planning on the part of Taupe Corporation.

As a new corporation, Taupe should have shifted at least $1 million of the $6 million in gross receipts from 2010 to 2011.

If this shifting had been done, Taupe would have fallen under the small business exception through 2012.