Enlightenment • Think change from absolutism to a more free government • 17th century intellectual movement • Worked to limit power of government and church. • Locke believed job of govt. was to protect the natural rights of people or be overthrown. • Enlightenment thinkers: • -Locke= Natural Rights • -Montesquieu= Separation of Powers • -Voltaire=Freedom of speech/thought • Enlightenment ideas led to: American Revolution, U.S. Constitution & Bill of Rights, French Revolution, Latin American Wars for Independence. • Divine Right= Believe that God puts monarchs on throne • Philosophe= French philosopher
Enlightenment Question What was one idea that the leaders of the American Revolution shared with Enlightenment thinkers? A. Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for mother countries. B. The people have the right to overthrow their government if it abuses its powers. C. Governments may restrict freedom of speech and of the press during times of crisis. D. Factories and businesses should be owned by the government rather than by individuals
2)Primary and Secondary Sources • The use of primary and secondary sources of information includes an examination of the credibility of each source. The use of primary and secondary sources in the study of history includes an analysis of their credibility – that is, whether or not they are believable. This is accomplished by checking sources for: • The qualifications and reputation of the author; • Agreement with other credible sources; • Perspective or bias of the author (including use of stereotypes); • Accuracy and internal consistency; and • The circumstances in which the author prepared the source. • Analyze and evaluate the credibility of primary and secondary sources.
Bias-One sided A newspaper prints an article on a controversial political issue. This article could be considered biased if its author A. formed logical conclusions based on fact. B. contacted supporters of only one side. C. presented statistical information on the issue. D. included information that had not been published before
Below are two points of view about a local landfill. From a local citizens group: “Unless the local landfill is closed down, the health of community residents will continue to suffer. The cost of finding a new landfill site is no longer the issue. Far more important are the proven health risks of toxic waste leakage.” From a county environmental safety official: “While there is always some health risk from landfills, the risk from our local landfill has proven to be very small. However, capacity is becoming a problem. Whatever the cost, we will need to find a new landfill site within the next year or the health of our citizens will become a real concern.” Which statement about the two points of view presented above is accurate? A. The point of view of the county official includes data to support it. B. The point of view of the citizens group is composed of facts. C. Both points of view fail to mention their sources of information. D. Both points of view include support from reliable sources of information
3.Historians develop theses and use evidence to support or refute positions • Historians are similar to detectives. They develop theses and use evidence to create explanations of past events. Rather than a simple list of events, a thesis provides a meaningful interpretation of the past by telling the reader the manner in which historical evidence is significant in some larger context. • The evidence used by historians may be generated from artifacts, documents, eyewitness accounts, historical sites, photographs and other sources
Support or refute a thesis A local politician believes that allowing graffiti artists to paint on a designated wall in a city park would reduce illegal graffiti in other parts of the city. Which statement would help support this thesis? A. Many people in the city do not approve of graffiti. B. Graffiti has appeared on buildings in many parts of the city. C. Illegal graffiti is not protected by the right to free speech. D. Similar programs have reduced illegal graffiti in other cities.
4) Historians analyze cause, effect, sequence and correlation in historical events, including multiple causation and long- and short-term causal relations • When studying a historical event or person in history, historians analyze cause-and-effect relationships. For example, to understand the impact of the Great Depression, an analysis would include its causes and effects. • An analysis also would include an examination of the sequence and correlation of events. How did one event lead to another? How do they relate to one another?
Cause and Effect What was the effect of the passage of Jim Crow laws in the United States in the late 19th century? A. Racial segregation was required by law in southern states. B. Native Americans were moved onto reservations. C. Restrictions were placed on business monopolies. D. Women were denied the right to vote in national elections
Cause and effect How did the U.S. government’s role in the economy change as a result of the Great Depression? A. The federal government had a diminished role in regulating economic activity. B. The federal government maintained the role it had in economic matters before the Great Depression. C. The federal government expanded its role in regulating economic activity and promoting economic growth D. The federal government transferred its role in economic affairs over to the state governments.
5)Declaration of Independence • The Declaration of Independence reflects an application of Enlightenment ideas to the grievances of British subjects in the American colonies. • The Declaration of Independence opens with a statement that the action the American colonies were undertaking required an explanation. • That explanation begins with a brief exposition of Enlightenment thinking, particularly natural rights and the social contract, as the context for examining the recent history of the colonies Explain a grievance listed in the Declaration of Independence in terms of its relationship to Enlightenment ideas of natural rights and the social contract
Declaration of Independence Which fundamental political idea is expressed in the Declaration of Independence?A)The government should guarantee every citizen economic security. B)The central government and state governments should have equal power. C)If the government denies its people certain basic rights, that government can be overthrown. D)Rulers derive their right to govern from God and are therefore bound to govern in the nation’s best interest.
Declaration of Independence In 1789, the French National Assembly issued the “Declaration of the Rights of Man,” based in part on the concepts expressed in the U.S. Declaration of Independence in 1776. Both documents reflected the Enlightenment belief that governments exist to protect the natural rights of citizens. What developments in France and the United States attempted to assure the implementation of this concept of government? A. drafting constitutional protections B. restoring monarchies across Europe C. gaining additional territory D. expanding the slave trade
6) The Northwest Ordinance • The Northwest Ordinance provided the basis for temporary governance as a territory and eventual entry into the United States as states • Basic rights of citizenship (e.g., religious liberty, right to trial by jury, writ of habeas corpus-you may have the body…brought before a judge to determine whether or not they are being held legally) were assured. • These assurances were precursors to the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution. Slavery was prohibited in the Northwest Territory. • This provision was later included in the Constitution as Amendment 13. State governments were to be republican in structure. This provision was repeated in the U.S. Constitution
Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was important because it A. ensured universal suffrage for all males B. extended slavery north of the Ohio River C. provided a process for admission of new states to the Union D. established reservations for Native American Indians
7) Problems facing the national government under the Articles of Confederation led to the drafting of the Constitution of the United States. • The framers of the Constitution applied ideas of Enlightenment in conceiving the new government. • The national government, under the Articles of Confederation, faced several critical problems. Some dealt with the structure of the government itself. • These problems included weak provisions for ongoing management of national affairs (a lack of a separate executive branch), a limited ability to resolve disputes arising under the Articles (a lack of a separate judicial branch) and stiff requirements for passing legislation and amending the Articles.
7-continued • The Constitution of the United States was drafted using Enlightenment ideas to create a workable form of government. • The Preamble and the creation of a representative government reflect the idea of the social contract. Articles I – III provide for a separation of powers in government. Article I also provides some limited protection of rights.
"We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; . . ."This quotation is evidence that some of the basic ideas in the Declaration of Independence wereA. limitations of the principles underlying most European governments of the 1700’s. B. adaptations of the laws of Spanish colonial governments in North America. C. adoptions of rules used by the Holy Roman Empire. D. reflections of the philosophies of the European Enlightenment.
8) The Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers structured the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. • The Constitution of the United States represented a significant departure from the Articles of Confederation. The document required ratification by nine states for the national government to be established among the ratifying states. • Proponents and opponents of the Constitution attempted to sway the deliberations of the ratifying conventions in the states. The proponents became known as Federalists and the opponents as Anti-Federalists
New York was a pivotal state in the ratification process and Federalists prepared a series of essays published in that state’s newspapers to convince New York to support the Constitution. • These essays have become known as the Federalist Papers and they addressed issues such as the need for national taxation, the benefits of a strong national defense, the safeguards in the distribution of powers and the protection of citizen rights. • What has become known as the Anti-Federalist Papers is a collection of essays from a variety of contributors. While not an organized effort as the Federalist Papers were, the Anti-Federalist Papers raised issues relating to the threats posed by national taxation, the use of a standing army, the amount of national power versus state power and the inadequate protection of the people’s rights.
“In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this, you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself.”This passage from the Federalist Papers refers to the need for A. a strong executive B. a system of checks and balances C. an independent military D. a national education system
9)The Bill of Rights • 1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution • Derived from English law, ideas of the Enlightenment, the experiences of the American colonists, early experiences of self-government and the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. • The Bill of Rights to the Constitution of the United States is derived from several sources. • These range from the English heritage of the United States to the debates over the ratification of the Constitution.
“The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic."-Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Which interpretation of the Bill of Rights does this statement illustrate?A. The needs of the government are more important than civil liberties. B. Constitutional protections of liberty are not absolute. C. The Supreme Court can eliminate freedoms listed in the Bill of Rights. D. The Bill of Rights does not safeguard individual liberties.
10)Industrial Revolution • Improved technology in agriculture increased output. • Industrial Revolution begins in Great Britain. • Many move from rural areas to cities to find work. • Industrialization results in urbanization-growth of cities (poor living conditions=slums) • Working conditions in factories: dangerous, long hours, little pay. • Women and children also worked in factories. • Led to rise of organized labor- Unions (demand better pay, shorter hours, benefits) • Assembly Line allows for mass production, prices begin to fall. • Middle Class begins to develop as the standard of living begins to rise.
Industrial Revolution Cont. • Populism & Progressivism are movements that develop in response to the poor living & working conditions. • Populism-Rural • Progressivism-Urban, middle class • Immigration to the United States increases because of the availability of jobs. • -Received low pay • -Often established own section of city.
What problem arising from U.S. industrialization did the progressive reformers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries want the federal government to address? A. use of child labor in the workplace B. unfair taxes on the wealthy C. restrictions on the use of natural resources D. lack of capital for railroad Expansion
11)Unregulated working conditions and violence toward supporters of organized labor • As a result of the changing nature of work, some members of the working class formed labor organizations (e.g., American Railway Union, American Federation of Labor, Industrial Workers of the World, United Mine Workers of America) to protect their rights. They sought to address issues such as working conditions, wages and terms of employment. • Labor organizations also grew due to the violence toward supporters of organized labor (e.g., Great Railroad Strike, Haymarket Riot, Homestead Strike, Pullman Strike
Why was the formation of labor unions an effect of U.S. industrialization in the late 1800s? A. Unions were needed to guarantee a steady supply of workers. B. Union membership was required for employment in new industries. C. Factory owners set up labor unions in order to control their large workforce. D. Unions organized industrial workers to protest unsafe working conditions and long workdays
12) Immigration, internal migration and urbanization transformed American life • Mass immigration at the turn of the 20th century made the country more diverse and transformed American life by filling a demand for workers, diffusing new traits into the American culture and impacting the growth of cities. • Many people left their farms for the cities seeking greater job opportunities. • The Great Migration marked the mass movement of African Americans who fled the rural South for the urban North. They sought to escape prejudice and discrimination and secure better-paying jobs. They helped transform northern cities economically (e.g., as workers and consumers) and culturally (e.g., art, music, literature).
The early 20th century saw a significant northward migration of African-Americans. During the 1920s, nearly 400,000 African-Americans settled in New York, Pennsylvania and Illinois. Many lived in large cities such as New York, Philadelphia and Chicago. Identify two economic effects of this migration on the United States. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)
13) Racial discrimination • Following Reconstruction, old political and social structures reemerged and racial discrimination was institutionalized. The removal of federal troops from the South accompanied the end of Reconstruction and helped lead to the restoration of the Democratic Party’s control of state governments. With the redemption of the South, many reforms enacted by Reconstruction governments were repealed. • Racial discrimination was institutionalized with the passage of Jim Crow laws. These state laws and local ordinances included provisions to require racial segregation, prohibit miscegenation, limit ballot access and generally deprive African Americans of civil rights
"Although important strides were made, Reconstruction failed to provide lasting guarantees of the civil rights of the freedmen.” Which evidence best supports this statement:A)passage of Jim Crow laws in the latter part of the 19th century B)ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments C)refusal of Southern States to allow sharecropping D)passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1866
14) Progressive Era • Urban, middle class reaction • Wanted to address the ills of American society stemming from industrial capitalism, urbanization and political corruption. Industrial capitalism, urbanization and political corruption contributed to many of the problems in American society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Journalists, called muckrakers, exposed political corruption, corporate and industrial practices, social injustice and life in urban America. • Progressives introduced reforms to address the ills associated with industrial capitalism. • Their efforts led to anti-trust suits (e.g., Northern Securities Company), antitrust legislation (Clayton Antitrust Act), railroad regulation (Hepburn Act), and consumer protection legislation (e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act). • The Federal Reserve Act was passed to control the nation’s money supply and regulate the banking system. • Conservation reforms included the creation of the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service and the passage of the Newlands Act. Progressives fought political corruption and introduced reforms to make the political process more democratic (e.g., initiative, referendum, recall, secret ballot, new types of municipal government, civil service reform, primary elections).
The United States Federal Reserve System was established to A. provide loans to industrialists B. end the Great Depression C. provide for a balanced budget D. regulate the money supply
Answer • The US Federal Reserve is responsible for setting the interest rates charged on loans through US banks. Lower interest rates result in “cheaper money” and a “looser” supply of money. Higher interest rates result in less loans being given and translate into a “tighter” money supply. The Federal Reserve will lower or raise rates in a continual effort to avoid inflation.
15) U.S. Imperialism:As a result of overseas expansion, the Spanish-American War and World War I, the United States emerged as a world power • With the closing of the western frontier, Americans developed favorable attitudes toward foreign expansion. • Pushed along by global competition for markets and prestige, an expanded navy and a sense of cultural superiority, the United States engaged in a series of overseas actions which fostered its move to global power status. • The annexation of Hawaii followed by a successful conclusion to the Spanish-American War allowed the United States to join other nations in imperialist ventures
Imperialism • Imperialism: strong nation has political, economic, & social control over a weaker nation. • White Man's Burden- Idea that the west must civilize backward nations. • Colonial Powers force their culture and political systems on their colonies. • The colony existed to benefit the colonial power. • Imperialism was fueled by the need for markets and resources for industrialization.
Imperialism Cont. • U.S. becomes imperialist power after the Spanish-American War – U.S. acquired Guam, Puerto Rico, & Philippines • American businesses fueled acquisition of Hawaii. • President Teddy Roosevelt has “Carry a Big Stick” policy- U.S. builds Panama Canal and intervenes in Latin America. • Results: • - Japan modernizes to protect herself from imperialist take over • - China is separated into Spheres of Influence. (U.S. supports Open Door Policy with China.) • -Struggles in African nations directly linked to past imperialist policies.
One factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the A. development of closer political ties with European nations. B. closing of China to all foreign trade. C. support of international peacekeeping operations. D. acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials.
World War I • 4 MAIN: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism. • First Modern War: advanced weapons are used (Submarines, machine guns, tanks, planes, gas) • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand immediate cause of the war. • Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria. • Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, U.S.
World War I Cont. • U.S. involvement: • -initially neutral, sell supplies to both sides. • -German unrestricted submarine war policy-reason for U.S. entry • -U.S. involvement led to defeat of Central Powers • -Great Migration-many African Americans move North for jobs in defense plans. • -14 points=President Wilson's plan for a lasting peace (Not as harsh as Treaty of Versailles) • Treaty of Versailles=Ends WWI, very harsh towards Germany.
World War I Cont. • Results: • League of Nations est. to prevent war • -Fails (no power to prevent aggression, • U.S. doesn't join) • Causes: Russian Revolution, Great Depression, Rise of Dictators, and WWII
During World War I, conscientious objectors to military service were often accused of disloyalty, and some conscientious objectors were sentenced to prison. However, other conscientious objectors were willing to accept noncombatant service. The assignment of conscientious objectors to noncombatant service was an attempt by the government to A. promote ethnic diversity within the military. B. educate people about their constitutional rights. C. balance individual rights and the common good. D. encourage people to apply for conscientious objector status
Treaty of Versailles • War Guilt Clause-Germany solely responsible for war. • Germany must pay billions in war damages (reparations) • Severely limits size of German military. • Germany cannot manufacture war materials. • Germany lost all overseas colonies. • Poland became an independent nation.
17) U.S. After WWI • The United States pursued efforts to maintain peace in the world. However, as a result of the national debate over the Versailles Treaty ratification and the League of Nations, the United States moved away from the role of world peacekeeper and limited its involvement in international affairs. • After WWI, the United States emerged as a world leader and pursued efforts to maintain peace in the world. President Wilson’s efforts partially helped shape the Treaty of Versailles, but debate over its terms and efforts to avoid foreign entanglements led to its defeat in the Senate and the United States’ decision not to join the League of Nations.
Between the Wars • U.S. returns to isolationist policy- distraught over monetary and human cost of WWI • Red Scare= fear of communism • a. result of Communist revolution in Russia • b. restricted immigration to the U.S. • Harlem Renaissance- Glorification of the accomplishments of African Americans. • a. Music, writers • b. Part of the Civil Rights Movement following • WWI • 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote
Between the Wars- Causes of the Great Depression (1929-1941) • Bank Failures • Overproduction • Overspending • Stock Market Crash • FDR’s plan to combat the depression was called the New Deal.
17) Racial intolerance, anti-immigrant attitudes and the Red Scare contributed to social unrest after World War I. The Great Migration of African Americans • Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities heightened racial tensions there and led to a series of urban race riots in 1919. Lynching and the enforcement of Jim Crow legislation continued in the South during the post war era. Racial intolerance also was seen in the revival of the Ku Klux Klan across the United States • The Russian Revolution set off the Red Scare in the U.S.-It was a reaction to these perceived threats and led to the incarceration and deportation of many aliens