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Introduction to Construction industry

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  1. Introduction to Construction industry Eng. Eyad Haddad Second Semester 2009

  2. Reinforced Concrete Part 2

  3. Two Options of Concrete Construction. • Cast off-site (Pre-cast) مسبق الصنع Components are built prior to installation, transported to the project and assembledتركب around the existing jobsite. Another option of Pre-cast is Pre-stress-pre-cast. • Cast on-site (Site-cast) مصبوب بالمكان Labor, materials and equipment are brought to the site and constructed in-place.

  4. Types of Concrete Elements. • Slab-on-grade, • Columns, • Walls, • Floor slabs and roof slabs, and • Other (stairs, cladding panels, etc.).

  5. Slab-on-grade (SOG). • A slab-on-grade is a level surface of concrete supported directly on the ground. Usually it carries very little structural load, except for live loads from traffic, equipment and storage. • The slab’s thickness varies (from 10cm to over 40cm) and the amount of reinforcing are determined by the soil’s bearing capacity and the size of the superimposed loads أحمال مركبة.

  6. Steps in casting a slab-on-grade • (1) Stripكشطthe organic topsoil because it has very little bearing capacity, • (2) cut and fill the site to prepare a level ground, • (3) compact the fill to provide a structural sub-grade, with adequate strength and at the correct elevation, • (4) install crushed stone or gravel if needed, • (5) survey location of building corners and construct batter boards, • (6) install drainage pipes and stub-out underground utilities, and • (7) prepare the location of control joints.

  7. Finishing with a rotary power trowel (walk behind)

  8. Control joint dowels

  9. Building Elements

  10. Casting the concrete columns. 1) Layout the locations of the columns. 2) Fabricate the steel reinforcing. 3) Pick up and place reinforcement over the dowels from the footing or the lower floor. 4) Place formwork for the column. 5) Cast the column concrete.

  11. Casting the concrete columns. 1. يتم تثبيت الأعمدة على الحزامات الارضية ويتم شد خيوط للمحاور الرئيسية وذلك للتأكد من صحة اماكنها حسب المخططات الخاصة بالمبنى ويتم تثبيت القوالب الخشبية للأعمدة على ثلاث أوجه فقط وذلك حتى نتأكد من القياسات الداخلية للعمود واستلام حديد التسليح وأقطاره. 2. يسمح بتثبيت الجنب الرابع للقالب الخشبي للعامود بعد التأكد من إنهاء الأعمال الكهربائية والصحية , ويتم التدقيق على استقامات الأعمدة بشد خيوط على محيط المبنى ومراجعة المسافات بين الأعمدة قبل الصب.

  12. Casting the concrete columns. 3. يتم التدقيق على رأسية الاعمدة لكل عامود من وجهين متعامدين

  13. Casting the concrete columns. 5. وأخيرا نبدأ بصب الأعمدة الخرسانية للدور الارضي كما هو موضح بالصور مع وجود الهزاز الميكانيكي. 4. يتم صب الأعمدة مع وجود عدد كافي من الهزازات الميكانيكية وقبل الصب يتم رش الشدة الخشبية بالماء قبل نصف ساعة من الصب وذلك حتى لا تمتص ماء الخرسانة.

  14. Casting the concrete columns. 6. وترش الخرسانة بعد تجمدها بالماء 3 مرات يومياً ولمدة أسبوع وذلك للتغلب على الشروخ. ونقوم بفك الشدة الخشبية للأعمدة بعد مرور يوم ( 24ساعة ) من فترة الصب الخرساني.

  15. “Offset” reinforcing at the top to overlap with rebars at the next level.

  16. Slab framing systems. One-way system التحميل يكون باتجاه واحد Spans across parallel lines of support furnished by walls and/or beams. Two-way system التحميل يكون باتجاهين Spans supports running in both directions.

  17. Solid slab Two way slab One-way slab Ribbed Slab Two way slab One-way slab

  18. Two-way waffle slab The two-way framing systems are often more economical than the one-way if: 1) The bay spacing (the distance between columns) is almost square. 2) The span can be accomplished with a flat slab, joists, beams, etc. These spans are often associated with higher loadings.

  19. Other types of solid slab

  20. Drop Panel

  21. Flat Slab

  22. Example for Ribbed slab

  23. Shells

  24. Stair Types 1. Straight stairs 15-17cm

  25. درج لفاف

  26. درج دائري

  27. Stair Type based on the structural loading type Simply supported stair (transversely supported) تحميل عرضي Longitudinally supported stair تحميل طولي Cantilever stair درج ظفري

  28. Longitudinal – Supported stairs

  29. Reinforcement Notes

  30. Reinforcement details

  31. Joints between buildings 1. Settlement Joint start before footing 2. Expansion Joint Start after footing 1. Settlement Joint 2. Expansion Joint 1. Settlement Joint

  32. Joints details