Achieving More Using Less in Public Sector ConstructionJanice PauwelsManager Sustainable Development UnitDepartment of Corporate ServicesSSN Conference October 2005
Construction Industry • MAJOR sector of the national economy • 8% of the UK GDP • Annual Output of £58 billion • But in environmental terms the… Largest consumer of ALL resources of all UK industries both directly and from its supply chain of materials, producers, fabricators and stockists.
Environmental Impacts • Approx 300 million tonnes of materials extracted and quarried • 72 million tonnes of construction/demolition waste ( 17% of UK total) • 40-50% of total UK emissions of CO2 • Major consumer of energy ( buildings consume 49% of all energy in UK) • 16% of water withdrawals • Approx 60% of all UK timber use – 25% virgin wood use – 90% of the 60% imported • 20% of all commercial and industrial noise complaints • Greatest number of water pollution incidents • Construction transport accounts for 13% of total UK fuel use and uses 4% of total energy • Transport accounts for between 10-20% of total construction costs Source BRE – Construction Statistics Data Report 2002
Drivers For Change • Energy Performance of Buildings Directive(Implementation by 2006) • New UK Strategy on Sustainable Development (Initiated 2004) • Egan Review of Skills for Sustainable Communities (2004) • Building (Scotland) Act (2003) • Secure and Sustainable Buildings Bill (2004) • Revision of Building Regulations (Proposed 2005/6) • Better Buildings – Better Lives: Report of the Sustainable Buildings Task Group (2004) • Code of Sustainable Building Practices based on BREEAM • The new code will establish higher standards for energy and water efficiency, as well as waste and use of materials. • Complete by the end of 2005, in order to take action on a national rollout by early 2006.
Edinburgh Context • Council Vision • New Council Policies • Publications - Sustainable Design Guide • Edinburgh Standards for Sustainable Buildings
Edinburgh Vision- “to lead the most successful and sustainable city region in northern Europe by 2015 and sustain the highest quality of life of any UK city”
CEC Policy Drivers • Standards for Urban Design in 2003 • Policy on the Procurement of Sustainable Assets (Jan 2004) • Policy on Sustainable Design and Construction (Dec 2004) • Sustainable Design Guide
Sustainable Design and Construction Policy Aim • The City of Edinburgh Council is committed to leading the most sustainable northern-European city region by 2015. The Council aims to integrate all the policy objectives into our design and construction activities for all facilities and buildings including refurbishment, new build, maintenance, and decommissioning, irrespective of size. It shall be the policy of the Council to aim to reduce the environmental impacts from our buildings and ensure that natural resources are used efficiently.
CEC Sustainable Design Guide • Launched 22 March 2005 • Assist in the implementation of the policy • Training being developed for Council staff and external consultants/companies - modules to be developed • Roll out of the policy across Council departments
Council Contracts for Construction • Incorporation of new clause in Council contracts (May 2005) that states: • The Council will expect the consultant appointed under this contract to fully adopt the sustainable development aspirations of the Council described in the Council documents “Towards a Sustainable Council” , “The Sustainable Design and Construction Policy” and the “Sustainable Design Guide”.
Some Current Examples within Edinburgh • New HQ • Schools PPP2 • New Care Homes • Refurbishment of the Council Civic Centre • Wester Hailes Canal House
New CEC HQ • Five floor open plan office space • Gross floor area of 17,362m2 • Staff Restaurant • Fitness suite • Nearly 1,800 staff • All departments represented • Council is the tenant - 20 year lease • Agreement for Lease signed in October 2003 • Halfway through construction
New CEC HQ • What was required from the developers? • “The City of Edinburgh Council is committed to sustainable development in all new city centre building projects. The Office Rationalisation Strategy provides an opportunity for the Council to demonstrate this commitment and encourage the adoption of sustainable development principles in the design of this project. The selection board will be looking for evidence of a thorough understanding of the issues with particular respect to the environmental performance of the building, transport needs, the working environment, maintenance and life cycle costs of the building” • Taken from the Client Specification
Process • Uniqueapproach involving developers, Council officers, design team and sustainability consultants • Establishment of a Sustainability Working Group • Agreement of a set of sustainability criteria covering issues such as energy, waste, water • Development of a series of targets to be met if appropriate or feasible (exemplars) • Understanding the constraints in sustainability terms • PROCUREMENT PROCESS - absolutely crucial - also VERY problemmatic
New CEC HQ Sustainability Key Performance Indicators There are 74 Sustainability KPI’s applying to ALL the stages of the project: Design, Construction, Fit out and Operation. These are incorporated into the Agreement for Lease There are 14 categories of KPI’s: Biodiversity Management Maintenance Safety Waste Transport Water Materials Pollution Health and well being Energy and C. Change General Social and EconomicIndoor Air Quality
Energy Efficiency & Climate Change KPI’sExamples of targets in the new HQ • KPI 1.06 Total Operational Energy Consumption • KPI 1.07 Installed Lighting Energy Consumption • KPI 1.08 Embodied Energy Rating • KPI 1.24 Resilience to Climate Change • KPI 2.12 Compliance with CEC Energy Policy
Solar Panels Third Floor Second Floor First Floor Entrance Entrance Floor
Opening Window behind shading louvres Design proposal Sample now on site
KPI 1.21Waste Minimisation Plan • Plan requirements:To produce a Waste Minimisation Plan • The plan sets in place a minimum diversion from landfill of 25% of construction waste that would normally be expected for a project of this size. Working with the Council, the Construction Phase Plan has now been underway for 11 months. In practice • A number of items were reused from existing buildings including metal racking and shelving used by a bike company, desks and chairs reused in a new office. Even old fire extinguishers were serviced and reused. All hardcore from existing buildings including old Victorian stone setts and bricks have been re-used to make new access roads on site, or in other land reclamation projects
WASTE MINIMISATION : Latest figures from 19 September 2005 • Paper 5.12 tonnes diverted from landfill • Cardboard 4.52 tonnes diverted from landfill • Wood 97.28 tonnes diverted from landfill • Metal 58.9 tonnes diverted from landfill • Aluminium 43 kg diverted from landfill • General Waste 354.9 tonnes diverted from landfill • Hardcore/Demolition 34,739 tonnes diverted from landfill • Plastic 125 kg diverted from landfill Totals 106.43 tonnes to landfill 35,260 tonnes diverted from landfill
StorageTank being installed KPI 2.16 Rainwater Harvesting 11,000 litres water capacity available for street cleaning, plus a tank for storm water attenuation
Materials KPI’s - some examples • KPI 1.15 Timber - only use from certified sustainable sources - preferably FSC • KPI 1.16 PVC - use to be minimised • KPI 1.24 Supply Chain Management Plan • KPI 2.21 Use of recyclable materials • In practice - this is a very difficult area in construction to address
KPI 1.15 - TIMBER • Monitored in the construction phase - mixture to date of FSC and PEFC timber • Also applies to the fit out phase. Council contract went out in Dec 2004 for its HQ furniture stipulated that : • “companies have to have ISO 14001 Environmental Management certification and Forest Stewardship Council accreditation certificates (or equivalent) and chain of custody certificates for all products. They had to provide documentary evidence (that has been or can be independently verified) to show that the wood/wood product has originated from sustainably managed resources.” • TENDERS RETURNED WITHOUT THIS INFORMATION (OR EQUIVALENT ) WILL NOT BE CONSIDERED
CASE STUDIES • Schools PPP2 ( 6) - set targets in the bidders specification e.g carbon targets - kg/carbon(worked with BRE), held meetings with potential bidders, worked up sustainability requirements for insertion into contract spec • New Care Homes (4) - working with contractors - feasibility studies for Biomass • New Civic Centre - set targets and use of workbook
BARRIERS • Procurement processes of the contractors particularly for major projects but also smaller ones • Lack of knowledge of designers and contractors • Being too specificin setting KPI’s at the outset • Being too general in setting KPI’s at the outset • Difficulty in specifying local suppliers and contractors • Perception of cost vs sustainability options • Capital costs of some sustainability options - e.g New Care Homes
LESSONS LEARNED • Devil is in the detail - need to have sustainability criteria in contracts!! • Having a policy in place and ensuring that all relevant Council officers are aware of it - • Importance of setting KPI’s (if that is the way a LA wants to proceed) and having a process in place to allow this to happen (or alternative) • Have expertise in house or seek it externally - from consultants or other LA’s • Sustainability can save money!