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Health. Health, Illness, and Disease Nutrition and Eating Behavior Exercise Substance Use. Health, Illness, and Disease. Children's Health. Prevention Immunizations Prevent health problems and accidents Children’s motor, cognitive, and socio-emotional

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Health, Illness, and Disease

Nutrition and Eating Behavior


Substance Use

children s health

Health, Illness, and Disease

Children's Health
  • Prevention
    • Immunizations
    • Prevent health problems and accidents
    • Children’s motor, cognitive, and socio-emotional

development makes health care needs unique

    • Caregivers play important role
  • Poverty is a special concern
    • 18% of U.S. children live in poverty
    • Approximately 11 million preschool children in

U.S. are malnourished

recommended immunization schedule of normal infants and children



2 months

Diphtheria, Polio, Influenza

4 months

Diphtheria, Polio, Influenza

6 months

Diphtheria, Influenza

1 year

TB test

15 months

Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Influenza

18 mos, 4-6 yrs

Diphtheria, Polio

11-12 years

Measles, Mumps, Rubella

14-16 years


Health, Illness, and Disease

Recommended Immunization Schedule of Normal Infants and Children
a healthy start

Health, Illness, and Disease

A Healthy Start
  • The Hawaii Family Support/Healthy Start Program:
    • Improve family functioning, reduce risk factors
    • Early identification
    • Reduce child abuse
    • Specialists give services
    • Family participation until child is 5 years old
adolescents health

Health, Illness, and Disease

Adolescents' Health
  • A Critical Juncture in Health:
    • Many factors and lifestyle linked to both poor health habits and early death in the adult years begin during adolescence.
    • Families, peers, schools influence health
  • Health Services:
    • Use private physician services at lower

rate than other age groups; lowest use by

older males.

young adults health

Health, Illness, and Disease

Young Adults' Health
  • Most have few chronic health problems.
  • Know how to stay healthy but adopt unhealthy lifestyles.
  • Many college students unrealistic, overly optimistic about future health risks.
  • Hidden dangers in peaks of

performance and health in early


health and aging

Health, Illness, and Disease

Health and Aging
  • Aging brings new health problems
    • 17% of 65 to 74 years old have disabilities
  • Chronic disorders
    • Alzheimer disease and dementia
    • Diabetes, arthritis, and asthma
    • Osteoporosis: extensive bone loss
chronic disorders

Health, Illness, and Disease

Chronic Disorders
  • Characterized by slow onset, long duration
  • Gender differences
    • Fatal chronic disorders affect men more
    • Nonfatal chronic disorders affect women more
  • Socioeconomic differences
    • Poor older adults 3 times more likely than

non-poor to be limited by chronic disorder


Health, Illness, and Disease

Increasing Disabilities with Age


Health, Illness, and Disease

  • Aging disorder involving extensive bone tissue loss
    • Related to calcium deficiencies
  • Gender differences — 80% of cases women
    • Affects 2/3 of women over age 60
    • Common in white, thin, small-framed women
  • Diet, exercise, weightlifting can help
alzheimer s disease

Health, Illness, and Disease

Alzheimer's Disease
  • Dementia: global term; Alzheimer is one form
  • Progressive, irreversible brain disorder with gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, eventually, physical function
    • Rate increasing in U.S.; no cure
    • Causes not fully identified; early and late onset
    • Age and genes play a role
    • Healthy lifestyle, medication can slow progression
alzheimer s disease1

Health, Illness, and Disease

Alzheimer's Disease
    • Early detection: MCI and special brain scans
    • Drug treatment and combinations
    • Caring for patients is exhausting, some respite

care available

  • Parkinson disease
    • Another type of dementia, no cure
    • Chronic and progressive, triggered by

loss of dopamine production in brain

    • Drug treatment loses effect over time
health treatment for older adults

Health, Illness, and Disease

Health Treatment for Older Adults
  • Probability of living in nursing home increases with age
  • Quality varies enormously
    • Over 1/3 are seriously deficient
    • Many fail inspections, minimum standards
    • issues of patient rights and privacy
  • Home health care, elder-care centers, preventative medicine good alternatives

Health, Illness, and Disease

Percentage of Older Adults of Different Ages In U.S. Nursing Homes

health treatment for older adults1

Health, Illness, and Disease

Health Treatment for Older Adults
  • Important factors for residents
    • Feelings of control and self-determination
    • Alert, responsive, caring staff
    • Effective coping skills
    • Opportunities to make choices
    • Positive staff, absent of stereotyping beliefs
    • Active role in medical encounters

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

  • Breastfeeding versus Bottle-Feeding
  • Benefits of breastfeeding:
  • Appropriate weight gain
  • Lowered risk of childhood obesity
  • Fewer allergies, lower risk of illnesses
  • Denser bones in childhood
  • Reduced risk of SIDS
  • Advanced neurological, cognitive development
  • Better vision acuity

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

  • When breastfeeding is avoided
    • Physical difficulties
    • Lifestyle conditions
    • HIV virus
  • Poor, developing countries
    • Few or no alternatives
    • Unsanitary health risks
    • Death rates linked to bottle-feeding

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

U.S. Breastfeeding Trends

malnutrition in infancy

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

Malnutrition in Infancy
  • Marasmus:
    • Wasting away of body tissues in first year;

severe protein-calorie deficiency.

  • Kwashiorkor:
    • Deficiency in protein; child’s abdomen and feet swollen with water.
  • Nutritional supplements linked to long-term effects on cognitive development.
    • Lowest SES groups benefited most.
nutrition in childhood

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

Nutrition in Childhood
  • Poor nutrition is special concern for many low-income children in U.S.
    • Children showed more aggression, hyperactive

and excessive motor behaviors

  • Positive influences on nutrition and health
    • WIC program linked to reduced risk of obesity
healthy and unhealthy eating

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

Healthy and Unhealthy Eating
  • Most children’s diets need improvement
    • Eating away from home, high fat foods
    • Unhealthy eating and being overweight
    • energy needs based on age, sex, and size
    • American culture encourages overeating
    • Children’s BMI continues to increase
  • Good diet can have long-term effects
    • Include low fat foods, milk, vegetables,

eaten with family away from TV

childhood obesity

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

Childhood Obesity
  • Consequences of Obesity
    • Increases child’s risk of medical problems
    • Low self-esteem and depression common;

has links to bullying

  • Treatment of Obesity
    • Diet and exercise
    • Intervention and behavior

modification through numerous programs

  • Problem among adolescents

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

Ethnicity and Overweight in U.S. Adolescents

eating disorders

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

Eating disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa— relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation
    • Most are white females from well-educated,

middle- and upper-income families

    • Competitive families, high achievement goals
    • Media and American culture fashion image
  • Bulimia Nervosa— individual consistently follows a binge-purge eating pattern
    • 90% are women; 70% recovery rate
adult development and aging

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

Adult Development and Aging
  • Obesity
    • Heredity and environmental influences
    • Link to health problems; rates increasing
  • Dieting
    • Restrained eating — individuals chronically

restrict food intake to control their weight

    • Concern for fad diets and obsession with thinness
    • Most effective programs include exercise
  • Harms and benefits of dieting
questions about aging and nutrition

Nutrition and Eating Behavior

Questions About Aging and Nutrition
  • Calorie Restriction and Longevity
    • Animal studies: restriction increases life span
    • Restriction slows aging from oxidation stress
    • Very-low-calorie diets effects unknown
  • Vitamin-and-Aging Controversy
    • Antioxidant supplements may slow aging process
    • No evidence antioxidants increase life span
    • Vitamin supplements still controversial
childhood and adolescence


Childhood and Adolescence
  • Concern: lack of exercise and obesity
    • Boys more physically active at all ages than girls
    • Effects of TV watching, computers, video games
    • Childhood habits continue in adolescence
    • Ethnic differences in exercise activity
  • Getting children and adolescents to exercise
    • More physical activity programs at school
    • Plan community and school exercise activities
    • Encourage families to focus on physical activity
exercise in adulthood


Exercise in Adulthood
  • Moderate and intense exercise may produce important physical and psychological gains
    • Prevention of heart disease, live longer
    • Aerobic exercise: sustained activity that stimulates

heart and lung functioning (e.g. jogging, cycling)

    • Exercising enough to burn more than 2,000 calories

a week can cut risk of heart attack by two-thirds

    • Exercise aids mental and physical health
ways to get yourself to exercise more


Ways to Get Yourself to Exercise More
  • Reduce TV time
  • Chart your progress
  • Get rid of excuses
    • Eliminate “I don’t have time” by making

exercise a priority

  • Imagine the alternative
  • Learn more about exercise
aging and longevity


Aging and Longevity

Exercise benefits:

  • Minimize physiological changes in aging, health
  • Optimize body composition
  • Related to prevention of common chronic diseases
  • Associated with improved treatment of diseases
  • Related to preventing and treating disability
  • Counteract side effects of standard medical care, improve quality-of-life and outcomes
  • Linked to increased longevity


Physical Fitness and Mortality

adolescence and emerging adulthood

Substance Abuse

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
  • Trends in drug use
    • Cigarette smoking and alcohol; U of M’s Monitoring the Future Study
    • U.S. drug use is high and increasing
    • Alcohol
      • European youth drink more than U.S.
      • College student heavy drinking unchanged
      • Drinking decreases by mid-twenties
adolescence and emerging adulthood1

Substance Abuse

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
  • Cigarette smoking
    • The most serious but preventable problem
    • Smoking begins in grades 7 through 9
  • Painkillers
    • 2004: 18% of U.S. adolescents report use
    • Main source: home or friends
    • Lower SES at higher risk
adolescence and emerging adulthood2

Substance Use

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
  • Drinking has declined among U.S. adolescents, but rates still high
    • 19 percent of eighth graders, 48 percent of

high school seniors drank in past 30 days

    • Binge drinking, mostly males
  • Smoking has declined heavily
    • Prices, anti-tobacco ads, social disapproval
    • Can cause permanent genetic lung changes
  • Roles of parents and peers
substance abuse in older adults

Substance Use

Substance Abuse in Older Adults
  • Smoking and lung cancer risk decreasing; cigarette and cigar smoking still a concern
  • Alcohol use declines
    • Majority of 65 and over abstain


substance abuse in older adults1

Substance Use

Substance Abuse in Older Adults
  • “Invisible Epidemic” of illicit and prescription drug abuse that goes undetected
    • Multiple medications
    • Mixing medicines with alcohol
    • Consequences may be attributed to other

medical or psychological conditions