Fuel Cells: The Hydrogen Revolution?. Thomass Eisenmann R. Matthew Willis. Team Members: Ibrahim Iskin Nuttavut Intarode Thien Tran Yong Ding. Click to add Title. 1. Click to add Title. 2. Click to add Title. Click to add Title. Click to add Title. 3. 5. 7.
Fuel Cells: The Hydrogen Revolution? ThomassEisenmann R. Matthew Willis Team Members: Ibrahim Iskin NuttavutIntarode Thien Tran Yong Ding
Click to add Title 1 Click to add Title 2 Click to add Title Click to add Title Click to add Title 3 5 7 Click to add Title Click to add Title 4 6 Table of Contents
Introduction: Fuel Cells The Hydrogen Revolution? CarbonDioxide Emissions and CarbonDioxideConcentrations (1751-2004) Global energy challenges: • Volatility in oil prices and sustained shortfalls due to far-reaching geopolitical and macroeconomic challenges. • Rising of CO and other GHGs • Rapid economic growth and energy consumption in China and India • Global climate change by majority of mainstream scientists’ beliefs. http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/greenhouse/Chapter1.htm No GHGs No air pollutants Strengthen national energy security. More energy efficient. Design Flexibility. Quiter Solution http://www.fueleconomy.gov/FEG/fcv_benefits.shtml
Fuel-Cell Technology History: 1 2 Type of Fuel cell: 3 Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) – Hydroxide salt Phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC) – Phosphoric acid Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) – Oxide salt Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) – Carbonate salt 4 Type of Fuel cell for the transportation: PEM ( Proton change membrane or polymer electrolyte membrane)
Fuel-Cell Technology Component of PEM fuel cell: Consist of seven parts – a few mm thick. - Proton exchange membrane: made of Teflon - Two electrodes: Carbone Anode (-) and Pt Cathode (+) - Two porous backing for each electrode: made of carbon paper/cloth. - Two exterior plates: made of stainless steel 3 5 1 Chemical processes: Generate electricity by electrochemical reaction 2 4 Oxygen (O2) + Hydrogen (H2) H2O atmosphere Cryogenically cooled tanks Performance of PEM: alternativefuels.about.com/.../PEM-Fuel-Cell.htm • Each PEM produces ~ 0.7 volts of electricity. • Multiple fuel cells generates 200-300 volts to power a large electric motor. • Latest generation of fuel-cell in 2003: • - Comparable in size & weight • - More expensive 10 times, $30,000 than ICE (Internal Combustion Engine), $3,000
Introduction: Fuel Cells – The Hydrogen Revolution? Internal Challenges: • High costs of development both viable fuel-cell technology and infrastructure for producing and distributing hydrogen. • Ambiguous supporting from federal government • Cost $10-20 billion to develop a network of hydrogen refueling stations. • In 2003, GM spent over $1 billion in fuel-cell R&D but had yet to commercialize any its vehicles. Why? • Ambiguous the proposed level of supporting from federal government to overcome the “Chicken – and – egg dynamic. • Future role of fuel cells was too important to let market forces alone dictate the timing of what it hoped would be a “ hydrogen revolution.” – by Bush administration. • Past government in the U.S. and abroad had a questionable track record when sponsoring technologies.
The Problems of Hydrogen Economy • Viable Fuel-cell technology • “In 2003, GM spent over $1 billion in fuel-cell R&D but had yet to commercialize any its vehicles” • Infrastructure for producing and distributing hydrogen • Cost $10-$20 billion to build a network of hydrogen refueling stations in the US • Public concern about safety • “Compressed gas technology required pressures of 5,000 to 10,000 PSI” and “hydrogen was highly flammable” • The chicken-and-egg problems
CO2 Emissions • “Alternative methods for reforming hydrogen were in development, including the use of nuclear energy, solar or wind power, and photosynthetic bacteria and algae. However, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimated that these alternative methods would not be economically attractive until after 2020.” Source: Adapted from "Will Hydrogen Clear the Air? Maybe Not Say Some," The New York Times, November 12, 2003, sec. C, p. 1, col. 4.
The Role of US Government in the Hydrogen Economy • 2002, Bush administration • "National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap" • "National Vision of America's Transition to a Hydrogen Economy-To 2030 and Beyond.“ • October 5, 2003, candidate for governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger • Hydrogen highway proposal: building “a network of hydrogen refueling stations on California’s major interstate highways by 2010” • “Elected officials across the political spectrum were beginning to believe that government intervention in facilitating hydrogen-fueled transportation was necessary and desirable.”
The US Government and the Hydrogen Economy • 2002, Bush administration • "National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap" • "National Vision of America's Transition to a Hydrogen Economy-To 2030 and Beyond.“ • October 5, 2003 • "hydrogen highway“ • “elected officials across the political spectrum were beginning to believe that government intervention in facilitating hydrogen-fueled transportation was necessary and desirable.”
Issues of Hydrogen Economy • In 2002, National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap proposed seven critical barriers to the successful development of hydrogen economy. • Production • Delivery • Storage • Conversion • Applications • Education and Outreach • Codes and Standards • Balkanized approach • Globally coordinated approach
European Union and Japanese Efforts • In EU and Japan government agencies were funding both fuel-cell basic science and enabling infrastructure technology • Japanese efforts were considered to be ahead of US and EU • Compared to US and Japan; EU efforts were more focused on demonstration and pilot projects • In 2004, there was not significant difference across US, Japan and EU in supporting hydrogen based transportation. • Europeans had greater incentive to adopt hydrogen based transportation technologies. Japan 4.62 http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Oil/idUSTRE4BO0AC20081225
Other Actors • Apart from customers there are numerous groups that have effect on development of hydrogen based economy • Oil companies • Oil-producing nations • Automobile manufacturers
Future ? • Called for $5.3 billions by US government funding over the next 5 years (from 2002) • Could the government afford it? • Could it afford not to make it?
What is the picture like today ? Technical progress (1): • Reduced cost of hydrogen mass production: from $5 to $3 per gallon gasoline equivalent (gge). • Reduced high-volume manufacturing cost of automotive fuel cell systems from $275/kW in 2002 to $73/kW in 2008 • improved the projected durability of fuel cell systems in vehicles from 950 hours in 2006 to 1900 hours in 2008 • Identified new materials to increase hydrogen storage capacity by more than 50 % (1) Congress Report on “Hydrogen and Fuel Cell activities, Progress and Plan”, by US DoE, January 2009
Hydrogen program targets Congress Report on “Hydrogen and Fuel Cell activities, Progress and Plan”, by US DoE, January 2009
Yes, but … With current technology hydrogen fueled cars would be more than twice as expensive as internal combustion engine systems. Today’s fuel cell cars can only last for 57,000 miles, one third of gasoline cars. The industry failed to meet the goal of 100,000 hydrogen-fueled vehicles by 2010, as specified in EPACT section 811(a)(4).
Can US government afford it ? From 2003 to 2008, US government had invested $1.2 billions in hydrogen economy program. However, to achieve goal of 2.5 million hydrogen fueled cars in the US by 2020 would require the government to pump at least $55 billion in subsidies over the next 15 years to make hydrogen vehicles cost competitive with conventional cars and trucks(1) The Los Angeles Times wrote, in February 2009, "Hydrogen fuel-cell technology won't work in cars.... Any way you look at it, hydrogen is a lousy way to move cars”. On May 5, 2009 the US Secretary of Energy, Steven Chu, announced that since fuel cell hydrogen vehicles "will not be practical over the next 10 to 20 years", the U.S. government will "cut off funds" for development of hydrogen vehicles, although the DoE will continue to fund research related to stationary Fuel cells (2) (1) http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jul2008/2008-07-18-10.asp (2) The Newyork Times, May 7, 2009
Budget cuts on Hydrogen research Congress Report on “Hydrogen and Fuel Cell activities, Progress and Plan”, by US DoE, January 2009
Can US government afford not to make it? Europe and Japan have stronger motives to develop hydrogen economy than the US ! • 07/05/09: FuelCellEurope and VDMA Fuel Cells Announce Cooperation to Foster Commercialisation of Fuel Cells in Germany and Europe (1) • 23/03/09: Royal Mail, Cenex, PostEurop and FuelCellEurope Join Forces To Accelerate Development Of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Postal Vans (1) • Leading automakers in and outside Japan and Japanese energy companies have agreed on a scenario which sees commercialization of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and hydrogen stations beginning in 2015 (2) (1) www.fuelcelleurope.org . The European association of fuel cell manufacturers (2) www.fuelcells.org
Discussion questions • What should have been done differently ? • What should be done ?
Appendix How does it work?: • Store H2 flow through channels in exterior plate and into anode, usually using Pt. • Resulting positive charge of H+, it is pulled through the membrane to the Cathode. • - The membrane prevent e- from traveling directly through the cathode. • 3.The e- is forced into the external circuit that traveled around the membrane then into the cathode. • - This circuit is used to provide electricity to an electric motor, a rechargeable battery, or another electric-power device • H+ and e- reach the cathode, atmosphere oxygen (O2) is forced into the cathode by a compressor. • - Pt catalyst in the cathode split the oxygen molecule in to 2 oxygen atoms. • 5.O- & H+ bond to from H2O and small amount of heat • - Water and Heat are exhausted into the atmosphere as only by product of the process. Note: Pt is one of the world’s most precious metals. It is a barrier to reducing fuel-cell costs Pt cost $865 per ounce – twice the price of goal.