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Hydrogen Storage. Hydrogen Basics. Douglas Conde. Hydrogen Basics. Hydrogen Gas (H 2 ). Very reactive. Most Common element in the universe. Never run out. Hydrogen Basics Cont. Hydrogen Basics Cont. Does not pool Dissipates quickly Burns with out dangerous vapors Invisible flame.

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hydrogen basics

Hydrogen Basics

Douglas Conde

hydrogen basics3
Hydrogen Basics
  • Hydrogen Gas (H2).
  • Very reactive.
  • Most Common element in the universe.
  • Never run out.
hydrogen basics cont5
Hydrogen Basics Cont.
  • Does not pool
  • Dissipates quickly
  • Burns with out dangerous vapors
  • Invisible flame
energy content comparison
Energy Content Comparison
  • Pound for Pound Hydrogen packs the most punch.
current storage inadaquete
Current Storage Inadaquete
  • Cost
  • Weight and Volume
  • Efficiency
  • Durability
  • Refueling Time
  • Codes and Standards
  • Life-cycle and Efficiency Analyses
department of energy objectives
Department of Energy Objectives
  • BY 2005, develop and verify on-board hydrogen storage systems achieving 1.5 kWh/kg (4.5 wt%), 1.2 kWh/L, and $6/kWh by 2005
  • By 2010, develop and verify on-board hydrogen storage systems achieving 2 kWh/kg (6 wt%), 1.5 kWh/L, and $4/kWh.
  • By 2015, develop and verify on-board hydrogen storage systems achieving 3 kWh/kg (9 wt%), 2.7 kWh/L, and $2/kWh.
  • By 2015, develop and verify low cost, off-board hydrogen storage systems, as required for hydrogen infrastructure needs to support transportation, stationary and portable power markets.
current storage technologies
Current Storage Technologies
  • Low and High-Pressure Gas
  • Liquid
  • Metal Hydrides
  • Chemical Hydrides
  • Physisorption
  • Current Methods
gaseous hydrogen storage
Gaseous Hydrogen Storage
  • H2 gas tanks are the most proven of hydrogen storage technologies.
  • Carbon-fiber-reinforced.
  • Up to 10,000 psi.
  • High pressure tanks present safety hazard.
  • Concerns over Hydrogen/tank molecular interactions lead to embitterment.
hydrogen gas storage
Hydrogen Gas Storage
  • Commercially available
  • Cannot match gasoline for energy compactness
hydrogen gas bulky storage
Hydrogen Gas: Bulky Storage
  • Higher Pressure, more energy per unit volume.
  • Gasoline = 34.656 MJ/L
  • Uncompressed Hydrogen 10.7 kJ/L
liquid hydrogen
Liquid Hydrogen
  • BMW working with on board liquid hydrogen for vehicles.
  • Likely storage for larger applications such as transportation or production storage.
  • Highly energy intensive to liquefy.
  • Concerns over safety due to extremely cold temperatures.
liquid hydrogen17
Liquid Hydrogen:
  • High Pressure low tempature.
  • (22K at 1 ATM)
liquefaction of hydrogen gas
Liquefaction of Hydrogen gas

The Joule-Thompson Cycle

Energy required is currently 1/3 of the energy stored

liquid storage options
Liquid Storage Options

Non Portable Liquid Hydrogen Storage

  • No way to prevent Boil off.
  • Spherical Tanks.
  • More suited for transportation and non vehicular storage.
  • 8.4 MJ/L twice the density of compressed H2
metal hydride families
Metal Hydride Families
  • Conventional Metal Hydrides (Naturally reversible)
    • AB5 most common (NiMH batteries) (1-1.25 rev wt%)
    • AB2 very common (1.3 rev wt%)
    • AB (TiFe - 1.5 rev wt%)
    • A2B (Mg2NiH4 - 3.3 rev wt%)
    • AB3, A2B7
  • Complex Hydrides (Naturally irreversible)
    • Catalysts and dopants used to destabilize hydride phase
    • Two types
      • Transition Metal
        • Mg2FeH6 (5.5% max wt%)
      • Non-transition metal
        • Be(BH4)2 (20.8% max wt%)
        • NaAlH4 (4.2% rev wt%, 5.6 th rev wt%) (110C)
remaining issues
Remaining Issues
  • Reversible capacity
  • Reaction pressure and temperature
  • Absorption/Desorption rates
  • Cyclic stability
  • Reactive with air and water
chemical hydrides27
Chemical Hydrides
  • NaH, LiH, NaAlH4, NaBH4, LiBH4, CaH2
  • Advantages/ Disadvantages
hydrogen storage by physisorption

Hydrogen Storage by Physisorption

Graphite Nanofibers

Nanotubes

Zeolites

Henry S Grasshorn Gebhardt

graphite nanofibers
Graphite Nanofibers
  • Inconsistent results: 0.08 wt.% to 60 wt.%
  • Most likely up to 10-13 wt.%
  • Lots of research needed

(a) Herringbone, (b) Tubular, (c) Platelet

multi wall carbon nanotubes
Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Giant Molecules
  • Length: a few microns
  • Inner Diameter: 2-10 nm
  • Outer Diameter: 15-30 nm
  • Much larger MWNTs have been observed.
  • Not much H2 adsorption?
single wall carbon nanotubes
Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Lots of small micropores
  • Minimal macroporosity
  • High thermal conductivity

→ Bundled SWNTs

where the h 2 would be
Where the H2 would be...

Maximum of ~8 wt.%,

or, ~1 H-atom for every C-atom.

doped nanotubes
Doped Nanotubes
  • Transition metals and alloys
  • Boron and Nitrogen
  • Other elements
  • Possibility of tuning the adsorption and desorption to the desired temperature.
  • Preliminary: ~1 wt.% without optimization.
zeolites
Zeolites
  • An ion (Na+) serves as a “door” to micropores:
    • Lower temp.: closed
    • Higher temp.: open
  • Temperature difference is small for some zeolites

Si and Al.

hydrogen uptake in zeolites
Hydrogen uptake in Zeolites
  • Most of the innumerable zeolites haven’t been studied yet in this respect.
  • At least 2 wt.%
automobiles testing with hydrogen fuel

Automobiles Testing with Hydrogen Fuel

Toyota, Ford, BMW, Honda, Nissan, United Nuclear

toyota fchv 4
Toyota => FCHV-4

Vehicle

Maximum speed ~ 95 mph

Cruising distance = Over 155 miles

Seating capacity = 5 persons

Fuel cell stack

Type = Polymer electrolyte fuel cell

Output = 120 HP (90 kW)

Motor

Type = Permanent magnet

Maximum output = 107 HP (80 kW)

Maximum torque = 191 lb-ft (260 Nm)

Fuel

Type = Pure hydrogen

Storage method = High-pressure hydrogen storage tank

Maximum storage pressure = 3,600 PSI

Secondary battery

  Nickel-metal hydride battery

ford model u
Ford => Model U

Performance

Engine horsepower: 118 hp (88 kW) at 4,500 rpmMHTS assist: 33 hp (25 kW) continuous / 46 hp (35 kW) peakTotal combined horsepower: 151 hp (113 kW) at 4,500 rpmTorque: 154 foot-pounds: (210 Nm) at 4,000 rpmEstimated fuel economy: 45 miles per kg hydrogen (= to 45 mpg gas)Emissions: PZEV or better

Powertrain

Hydrogen 2.3-liter ICE with supercharging and dual-stage intercooling Modular Hybrid

Transmission System

bmw 745h
BMW => 745h
  • testing with the simple principles of nature
    • liquid hydrogen is generated from energy and water
    • in engines - the hydrogen combusts with oxygen -> returns to water
    • cycles through this process to fuel the car
honda fcx
Honda => FCX

ENGINE

Motor Type = AC Synchronous Electric Motor (permanent magnet)

Maximum Output (horsepower) = 80

Fuel Cell Stack Type = PEFC (polymer electrolyte fuel cell)

Fuel Cell Maximum Output (kW)* = 78

Maximum Speed (mph) = 93

Vehicle Range (miles, EPA mode) = 160

  • .

FUEL

Type = Compressed hydrogen gas

Storage = High-pressure hydrogen tank

Tank Capacity (L) = 156.6

Gas Volume when Full (kg) = 3.8

Maximum Pressure when Full (PSI) = 5000.0

nissan x trail fcv
Nissan => X-TRAIL FCV

Vehicle

Seating capacity = 5

Top speed (km/h) = 145

Cruising range (km) = Over 350

Motor

Type = Coaxial motor integrated with reduction gear

Maximum power (kW) = 85

Fuel cell stack

Fuel cell = Solid polymer electrolyte type

Maximum power (kW) = 63

Supplier = UTC Fuel Cells (USA)

Storage battery

Type = Compact Lithium-ion Battery

Fueling system

Fuel type = Compressed hydrogen gas

Max. charging pressure (MPa) = 35

united nuclear
United Nuclear
  • took a 1994 Corvette and created a hydrogen fuel system
  • Driving range is 700+ miles per fill with a near-zero fuel cost
united nuclear46
United Nuclear
  • stores the hydrogen in hydride tanks, which absorb the hydrogen like a sponge soaking up water
  • this is actually a safer storage system than a gasoline tank is