390 likes | 672 Views
Higher Education Security Officer Training . Scope. This training module is based off the information obtained in the International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA) - Campus Protection Officer Training Program - Second Edition. . Purpose.
E N D
Scope This training module is based off the information obtained in the International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA) - Campus Protection Officer Training Program - Second Edition.
Purpose Create a standardized training program for Higher Education, non-commissioned campus safety and/or security officers in the Pierce County Region.
Objectives • Factors to Consider When Using Force • Use of Force Continuum • Use of Force Defined • Levels of subject’s Resistance • Level of Force against Subject’s Resistance • Tools – Tactics – Timing • Progression of Force • Risk Assessment • Use of Force Outside Parameters • Reporting and Post Application First Aid • Supervisor’s Responsibilities • Officer Safety
Use of Force • The use of force is probably the most critical task that an officer faces during the performance of his or her duties. • The stakes are extremely high with regard to the potential consequences involved in a use of force incident. • The officer’s safety and survival are at stake.
Use of Force • The legal issues involved. • The safety and survival of citizens as well as suspects. • The issues related to the preservation of the civil and constitutional rights of all parties involved in a use of force incident.
Use of Force • Officers must apply force appropriately. Use of force must be: • Necessary • Reasonable • Authorized • Not be reckless • Justified • Officers must know, understand, and comply with all Department policies and procedures, state, federal and local law relative to the use of force.
Use of Force • In the use of physical force, there is very little room for error. • In the use of deadly physical force, there is no room for error.
Use of Force Continuum • Officers must demonstrate knowledge and understanding and the ability to apply the Use of Force Continuum in actual situations. • The Continuum will assist the officer with use of force decision-making.
Use of Force Continuum • The Continuum illustrates how three variables interact to determine the appropriate application of force: • The level of a person’s resistance. • The level of force used by the officer to overcome the person’s level of resistance. • The tactics and/or weapons used by the officer
Use of Force Continuum • Officers must use the Use of Force Continuum and apply it to the particular circumstances confronting the officer to ensure excessive force is avoided, but also to avoid using too little force. The potential consequences and outcomes of a use of force incident are the result of improper application of force, be it too much or too little force applied.
Use of Force Continuum • Officers must know the law and department policy and procedure. This is the foundation for their authority to use force. Misunderstanding this foundation of authority may cause the officer to engage in activity outside the scope of their job duties and legal authority. As a result, the officer may find himself or herself unprotected against civil and criminal actions for illegal use of force against another person.
Definitions • Physical Force: the application of enough force to overcome resistance, but not amounting to deadly force. • Deadly Physical Force: the application of enough force to cause death or serious physical injury. • Serious Physical Injury: serious or protracted disfigurement, amputation, or loss or impairment of the use a bodily function or organ.
Definitions • Non-Lethal Weapon: includes the ASP expandable baton and Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Spray. • Justified Use of Force: the use of force is justified when it is authorized by law, when it is necessary, reasonable, and absent recklessness. Officers are not relieved of liability for reckless or excessive use of force.
Levels of Resistance • Cooperative: the person willingly complies with the officer’s direction while the officer is attempting to accomplish a lawful and safe arrest. The person offers no resistance.
Levels of Resistance • Constructive Resistance: walking away from an officer’s commands or refusing to comply with other attempts by the officer to gain control of the situation. Physical attempts to pull or jerk away from the officer are at this level. However, the person does not direct physical force toward the officer.
Levels of Resistance • Intimidation: this is the first level of resistance. Intimidation, if left unchecked, creates a possibility of resistance. Resistance may take several different forms to include verbal taunting, attempts to distract the officer, threats of injury, making racial slurs, and using profanity or vulgarity of a nature that would tend to inflame another person.
Levels of Resistance • Physical Resistance: this includes grabbing, pushing, punching, kicking, biting, and throwing objects at the officer. The person has committed a battery on the officer.
Levels of Resistance • Deadly Resistance: the highest level of resistance and includes the person’s demonstrated intentions to seriously injure the officer or render him/her unconscious or incapable of self-protection. Such actions as attempts to grab officer’s baton, firearm, OC spray, high-velocity strikes and blows at the officer’s head, throat, or vital organs, and any actions that if successfully completed would have a high probability of causing serious lasting or permanent injury or death.
Levels of Force in Response to Resistance • Listed below are the levels of force officers may apply in response to the level of resistance offered. The levels are listed from the least amount of force to the greatest amount of force applied. • Compliance Control: this includes all lawful commands as well as verbal orders. The purpose is to establish physical control of the person to accomplish a lawful frisk, an arrest, handcuffing, a search, and investigative detention, or a custodial procedure.
Levels of Force in Response to Resistance • Physical Control: physically touching, grabbing, knocking off balance, or holding the person. The purpose is to accomplish a lawful frisk, an arrest, handcuffing, a search, and investigative detention, or a custodial procedure.
Levels of Force in Response to Resistance • Persuasive Tactics and Compliance Commands: included is the use of pressure points, pain compliance holds, and physical takedowns.
Non-Lethal Tactics and Weapons – Impact Weapons and OC Spray, Striking, Kicking, and Handcuffing. • Survival Tactics – Application of Deadly Force.
Tools – Tactics – Timing • During the course of interaction with the public, an Officer may encounter all types of responses from compliant interaction to life threatening. Enforcement electives relating to subject actions make available tactics, techniques, and tools based on timing and the reasonable Officer response.
Progression of Force • The use of force continuum is designed to proportionally align Officer's use of force with subject actions. This model also allows for escalation, stabilization, and de-escalation, as the subject's actions change. Although this model is in an escalating progression, all tools and techniques need not be used and/or exhausted prior to moving to a higher or lower level. Circumstances will dictate response.
Risk Assessment • Officers must generally employ the tools, tactics, and timing of force application consistent with the model's directions and departmental training modules. This model, while requiring the Officers to maintain controlled superiority over a subject, supports the practice of progressive application of force as part of a continuous risk assessment process. Risk is assessed objectively based on the on scene reasonable Officer's perspective taking into account the facts and circumstances of the particular situation that are known to the Officer.
Use of Force Outside Parameters • Due to the fact that Officer/Citizen confrontations occur in environments that are potentially unpredictable and are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving, Officers may use tools and tactics outside the parameters of departmental training. All such applications of force shall meet the same standard of reasonableness as those which have been previously identified and approved. No distinction shall be made relative to the age of the suspect regarding the use of force. Reasonable timing and tactics shall be the determining factors.
Use of Force Outside Parameters • When situations are reasonably stabilized, application of force must proportionally de-escalate or cease, in accordance with the subject actions, when control is gained, or threat is removed.
Reporting and Post Application First Aid Officer Responsibilities: • Initiate First Aid/Request Medical Aid, if necessary; • Notify immediate Supervisor; • Refer to actions in the Incident Report narrative; • Look for, identify and document all visible injuries; • Inquire of and document complaints of non-visible injuries.
Supervisor’s Responsibilities Supervisor Responsibilities: • Respond to the scene and/or hospital; • Investigate and report findings in a report; • Determine if Force was within Department guidelines • Determine if there are training issues/mitigate.