Views of Intelligence and Intelligence Testing by: MaryJane Kiefer
What is Intelligence? William Stern Alfred Binet Charles Spearman Louis Thurstone J. P. Guilford Howard Gardner Robert Sternberg Raymond Cattell
Critique of IQ and IQ Tests IQ tests were designed initially to predict school performance, however, over one-half of the variance in school grades is not predicted by IQ. Success is better predicted by past and present school success. The chief criticism of IQ tests is that they are culturally biased. Tests were originally designed to measure “innate” general intelligence apart from environmental influences. But research has shown that sociocultural factors play a significant role in the outcome of the tests.
Intelligence Tests Stanford-Binet is a widely used, individually administered test of general scholastic aptitude that yields scores in four areas: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short-term memory. The composite score can be interpreted as an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) that reflects overall intelligence.
Stanford-Binetnormal distribution of intelligence scores 2.15% Above 2.15% Below 65.26% Average
The Wechsler ScalesWAIS-III WISC-III WPPSI-R The Wechsler Scales yield a composite IQ score, plus a verbal IQ from six verbal subscales, and a performance IQ from the six performance subscales.
WISC-II Verbal Scale 1.General information 2.General comprehension. 3.Arithmetic. 4.Similarities. 5. Vocabulary. 6. Digit span. Performance Scale 1.Picture completion.. 2.Picture arrangement. 3.Block design. 4.Object assembly. 5.Coding. 6.Mazes. Subtest scores may be regrouped into the following individual scores: Verbal comprehension Freedom from distraction Perceptual organization Processing speed
Sample Questions Sally likes 225 but not 224; she likes 900 but not 800; she likes 144 but not 145. Which does she like? 1600 1700 If two typists can type two pages in two minutes, how many typists will it take to type 18 pages in six minutes? 3 4 6 12 36
Sample Questions If it were two hours later, it would be half as long until midnight as it would be if it were an hour later. What time is it now? 18:30 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:30 What is the number that is one half of one quarter of one tenth of 400? 2 5 8 10 40
Sample Questions If you count from 1 to 100, how many 7's will you pass on the way? 10 11 19 20 21 What four-letter word can be added to the front of the following words to create other English words? CARD BOX CODE BAG HASTE
Sample Questions For more sample IQ questions visit www.mensa.org