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Intelligence Testing. March 8, 2006 Pauline Yu and Neha Begwani. History.

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Intelligence testing

Intelligence Testing

March 8, 2006

Pauline Yu and Neha Begwani


History
History

  • “I advance it, therefore, as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstance, are interior to the whites in he endowment both of body and of mind.” Thomas Jefferson


Craniometry
Craniometry

  • George Morton

    • Hypothesis: “objectively by physical characteristics of the brain, particularly by its size.”

    • Approximate intelligence by measuring the volume of the cranium

    • Large sources of bias in methodology



Brain size as proxy for intelligence
Brain Size as Proxy for Intelligence

  • Correlation between body size and cranium size

    • “This fact does not imply that big people are smarter—any more than elephants should be judged more intelligent than humans because their brains are larger.” (Gould, 61)


Bias in sample size
Bias in Sample Size

  • Morton’s experimentation suffered from disproportionate sample size

    • Unequal representation of subgroups within a race group

    • Native American sample

      • 25% was the smaller brained Inca Peruvians

      • 2% was the larger brained Iroquois


Morton s subconscious
Morton’s Subconscious

  • Bias from subconscious belief in superiority of white race

    • Packing the craniums of white subjects as tightly as possible

    • Did not put same effort for Black and Native American Races

    • Rounded results to further skew data


Racial comparisons

Racial Comparisons

Paul Broca (1824-1880) compared the radius:humerus ratios in humans

(larger ratio = longer forearm)

Apes have long forearms


Ratios
Ratios

  • Whites - 0.739

  • Blacks - 0.794

    But…..

  • Eskimos - 0.703

  • Native Americans - 0.709

  • Broca concluded: “After this, it seems difficult to say that elongation of the forearm is a character of degradation or inferiority”


Stanford binet test
Stanford-Binet Test

Sample Questions (1911 Version):

An Indian who had come to town for the 1st time in his life saw a white man riding across the street. As the white man rode by, the Indian said - “The white man is lazy; he walks sitting down.” What was the white man riding on that caused the Indian to say, “He walks sitting down.”

My neighbor has been having queer visitors. First a doctor came into the house, then a lawyer, then a minister. What do you think happened there?


Catherine cox
Catherine Cox

Some of her results:

Average A1 IQ (birth-17) - 135

Average A2 IQ (17-24) - 145

Major flaw - IQ is not supposed to alter with age.

“Normal” IQ Range: 85-115

  • Attempted to estimate the IQs of 282 geniuses

  • Flawed and illogical but… from this study she earned a PhD from Stanford!


Yerkes and the army exams
Yerkes and the Army Exams

“Examinations Alpha and Beta are so constructed and administered as to minimize the handicap of men who because of foreign birth or lack of education are little skilled in the use of English. These group examinations were originally intended and are now definitely known to measure native intellectual ability.” - Yerkes


Army examination alpha
Army Examination (Alpha)

  • The most prominent industry in Detroit is

    (A)automobiles (B) brewing (C) flour (D) packing

  • Velvet Joe appears in advertisements for

    (A) tooth powder (B) dry goods (C) tobacco (D) soap

Results:

Average mental age of white American adults stood at 13!

European immigrants: Russian - 11.34, Italian -11.01, Pole - 10.74

IQ = (Mental Age / Actual Age) X 100


Iq testing today
IQ Testing Today

  • Major Cultural Biases in Testing:

    • Non-verbal Raven’s test vs. highly verbal Peabody Picture test

    • BITCH test developed to counter the cultural differences


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