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Intelligence and General Ability Testing

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  1. Intelligence and General Ability Testing Chapter 7

  2. Models of Intelligence Psychometric approach Developmental progressions Information processing Other theories

  3. Psychometric Approach • Based on premise that intelligence can be described in terms of mental factors(Bjorkland, 2005) • Spearman’stwo-factor model (1927) • g (general ability factor) • Specific factors • Guilford’sstructure-of-intelligence theory (1988) • 180 intellectual factors in three dimensions: • Mental operations • Content areas • Products

  4. Psychometric Approach (cont.) • Thurstone’s7 primary mental abilities (1938) • Verbal comprehension • Word fluency • Number facility • Perceptual speed • Memory • Space • Reasoning • Vernon’shierarchical theory (1950) • g • Verbal and educational aptitude& spatial, mechanical and practical aptitude

  5. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model • One of the more influential contemporary theories • g: top stratum • Second stratum: Fluid abilities (Gf), crystallized abilities (Gc) & six other broad abilities • Third stratum: more specific factors

  6. Developmental Progressions • Developmental theorists posit that intelligence can be better understood by examining how intelligence develops • Learning and environment influence the process • Jean Piaget (1972) • Stages of Development: • Sensorimotor • Preoperational • Concrete • Formal operations

  7. Developmental Progressions • Jean Piaget (1972) (cont.) • Intellectual functions: • Assimilation • Accommodation • Ceci’sbioecologicalmodel (1990, 1993) • Intellectual abilities are highly influenced by context in which they are performed • Intelligence may not be reflected in methods currently used to assess intelligence

  8. Information-Processing • These models focus on how individuals process information • Luria’stheory (1966) • Simultaneous processing • Sequential processing • Naglieri & Das’theory (1997, 2005) • Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) • Sternberg’striarchictheory (1985, 1988) • Internal world of individual or mental processes that underlie intelligence • Experiential subtheory • Individual’s contextual or external world

  9. Other Theories • Gardner’stheory of multiple intelligences (1993) • Any set of adult competencies that are valued in a culture merits consideration as a potential intelligence • 9 “frames of mind” • Linguistic • Logical-mathematical • Musical • Spatial • Bodily-kinesthetic • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Naturalist • Existential • Measures need to value intellectual capacities in wide range of domains, methods should be appropriate for domain

  10. Individual Intelligence Testing Wechsler Scales Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Kaufman Instruments Woodcock-Johnson III Complete Battery AdditionalIndividual Instruments

  11. Wechsler Scales • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition(WAIS-IV, 2008) • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition(WISC-IV, 2003) • Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III (WPPSI-III, 2002) • Wechsler Memory Scale IV(WMS-IV, 1997)

  12. WAIS-IV • Full Scale IQ • Index Scores: • Verbal Comprehension (Vocabulary, Similarities, Information, Comprehension*) • Perceptual Reasoning (Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights*) • Working Memory (Digit Span, Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing*) • Processing Speed (Symbol Search, Coding, Cancellation*) • Uses basal and ceiling levels

  13. WISC-IV • Full Scale IQ– based on four Index Scores:

  14. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test – 5 • For use with individuals 2 – 85 years old • Verbal IQ, Nonverbal IQ, Full Scale IQ • Five factors for both verbal and nonverbal areas • Fluid Reasoning • Knowledge • Quantitative Reasoning • Visual-Spatial Processing • Working Memory • Basal level, ceiling level, routing tests

  15. Kaufman Instruments • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II, 2004) • Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT, 1993) • Not as widely used as Wechsler instruments • Integration of different theoretical approaches

  16. KABC-II • Designed to assess children ages 3 to 18 • Yields 4 or 5 scales depending on whether the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) or Luria approach is used • CHC perspective (Fluid-Crystallized Index) • Short-Term Memory • Visual Processing • Long-term Storage and Retrieval • Fluid Reasoning • Crystallized Abilities • Luria perspective (Mental Processing Index) • Sequential Processing • Simultaneous Processing • Learning Ability • Planning Ability

  17. KAIT • Designed for individuals 11-85 years old • 3 intelligence scales: • Fluid (Gf) • Crystallized (Gc) • Composite • 6 subtests: • 3 assess fluid intelligence • 3 assess crystallized intelligence

  18. Woodcock-Johnson III Complete Battery • Assesses general intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitude, oral language & academic achievement • Comprised of two instruments: • Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities • Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement • Based on CHC model of intelligence • Clusters: Verbal Ability, Thinking Ability, Cognitive Efficiency, Broad Reading, Broad Math, Broad Written Language, Oral Language

  19. Additional Individual Instruments Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (Elliot, 2006) SlossenIntelligence Test-Revised, Third Edition (Nicholson & Hibpshman, 1990) Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven et al., 1998) Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007) Test of Nonverbal Intelligence 3 (Brown et al., 1997)

  20. Group Intelligence Testing Given more often than individual intelligence tests, usually in schools Not as easy to monitor test-taker’s behavior during assessment Require more reading than individual tests Must consider other factors of individual (culture, background, language proficiency) wheninterpreting results

  21. Group Intelligence Testing (cont.) Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, 8thEdition(OLSAT-8) Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II (MAB-II) WonderlicContemporary Cognitive Ability Test

  22. Is Intelligence Stable? Infants and young children have the least stable intelligence test scores Early research indicated intelligence gradually declines after age 20 – not supported by later research More recent research indicates intelligence gradually increases from childhood to middle age and then levels off Declines tend to occur in areas of fluid intelligence Degree of decline related to interaction of variables, such as physical health, mental activities, education

  23. What Do Intelligence Scores Predict? • Intelligence tests appear to be related to academic performance (correlation of 0.5) • The relationships among IQ scores, occupational success, and income are not simple • Validity generalization • Same test score data may be predictive for all jobs – if test is valid for a few occupations, it is valid for all jobs in that cluster • GATB validity coefficients can be generalized to other occupations. • Concerns regarding the use of the Job Family method and ethnically diverse groups

  24. Is Intelligence Hereditary? One of the most controversial issues in intelligence testing Difficult to determine estimates of genetic contribution to intelligence Heritability indexes for intelligence tend to be approximately .50 Both genetic and environmental factors affect intellectual development; IQ scores seemingly related to interaction between the two

  25. What Environmental Factors Influence Intelligence? Culture and language School attendance Quality of schooling Family environment Environmental toxins

  26. Are There Group Differences in Intelligence? • Gender • Do not appear to be general intellectual differences between men and women • Men may be better at visual-spatial tasks • Women may be better at some verbal tasks • Ethnicity • African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans tend to score lower on intelligence tests than European-Americans or Asian-Americans • Differences may be due to socioeconomic, linguistic, cultural factors, etc.

  27. What is the Flynn effect? James Flynn (1984, 1987) first to identify steadily increasing intelligence test scores in recent years Gains in IQ not reflected in gains in achievement Possible explanations: better nutrition, more test sophistication, changes in education and opportunities, changes in parenting practices