Christian military expeditions designed to recapture the Holy Land VS.
Why did they happen? In the 1050s, Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzantine Empire and overran Christian lands in Asia Minor. At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II encouraged French & German bishops to recover Jerusalem (Holy Land). Medieval Sourcebook: Urban II - Speech at the Council of Clermont
Christians who answered Urban II’s call became known as crusaders (to take up the cross)
Many causes for Crusades (political, economical, social, religious): • In 1095, Byzantine Emperor (Alexius I) asked Pope Urban II for help in opposing the Seljuk Turks. • Pope Urban agreed for a variety of reasons: • Opportunity to take control of Holy Land (religious impact & trade routes) • Pope believed the Crusades would increase his power (reunite Eastern and Western Christians) • Christians believed their sins would be forgiven • Nobles hoped to gain wealth & land • Knights & adventurers saw the Crusades as a chance for travel & excitement • Serfs/peasants hoped to escape feudal oppression
Differences between the West and the Byzantine Empire • Practiced a version of Christianity called “Orthodox Christianity” – Eastern Orthodox Church • Division had existed between the Church in Rome and the Byzantine Church since the time of Justinian (527-565 AD) • Emperor had power over Church • Emperor appointed the patriarch (highest church official) • Emperor was considered Jesus’ co-ruler on earth. • Byzantine Christians did not believe that the pope had supreme authority over them • Differences with West • Byzantine priests could marry • Greek (not Latin) was the language of the church • Idol worship in East – Idolatry? • Permanent schism (split) had occurred between the Orthodox Christian Church in East and Roman Catholic Church in West in 1054.
The Crusades began in 1096 and • ended in the late 1200s. • There would be a total of • Crusaders traveled across Western Europe & into the Middle East (Palestine)
Some Important Crusades: 1st Crusade (Peasants Crusade) was successful as the Christians captured Jerusalem from the Muslims, but eventually lost the city to Saladin.
3rd Crusade (King’s Crusade)was led by Richard the Lion-Hearted (King of England). Richard conquered many cities but never Jerusalem
4th – Crusade (Sack of Constantinople) – Crusaders attack Constantinople for money (pay back loans from Venetians) and this ended with Christians fighting Christians.
Children's Crusade- thousands of children set out for the Holy Land (never made it) many died and the rest were sold into slavery Crusades Timeline
The Crusades failed to maintain their goal of reconquring the Holy Land but they are often called the most successful failure in history because….
Effects of Crusades • Pope became more powerful • Leave legacy of hatred between Christians & Muslims • Feudalism weakens and lords begin to ask peasants for money • King’s & monarchs become more powerful but nobles lose power • Italian city-state expand trade and grow rich • Trade grows between Europe & Middle East (commerce increases) • Cultural Diffusion- Europeans gain new products, technology, • & rediscover Greco-Roman ideas from Muslims
Impact of Crusades Flow Chart Crusades Start Serfs leave manors Feudalism weakens Kings collect money for rent of land Crusaders travel world & discover new ideas Need $$$ (not crops) to pay for Crusades Crusaders bring ideas and products back from Middle East Europeans start to use money, coins, & banks Renaissance begins In Florence Trade & towns make money off Crusaders
Spanish Crusade • Muslims (Moors) controlled most of Spain until the 1100s when • the Reconquista began, a long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain. • By 1400 Muslims held only Grenada, which fell to a Christian army • led By Ferdinand & Isabella. • King Ferdinand & Isabella use the Inquisition (trials held by church • to suppress heresy) to become more powerful
The Crusades grew from the forces of religious fervor, feudalism, and chivalry as they came together with explosive energy. That same energy could be seen in the growth of trade, towns, and universities in medieval Europe.